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AUSTRALIAN

PLANT  IDENTIFICATION

  A RESOURCE

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Useful resources to help in identifying native and naturalised

plants, fungi and algae.

 

by R.O. (Bob) Makinson1 and Catherine L. Jordan

 

1 Corresponding author: bobmakinson2073@gmail.com

 

Version of 08 April 2019  Copyright © Australian Network forPlant Conservation.

 

Corrections, comments, and additions are welcome – please send to corresponding author. Information on new resources/or editions) that addresses all the bibliographic fields used in this work would be greatly appreciated

 

Disclaimer

This bibliography is for use as a guide to relatively accessible resources.  It is neither definitive nor exhaustive.  Use made of the resources listed is the responsibility of the user. We recommend seeking professional botanical advice for any situation involving legal or professional liability, intellectual or genetic property rights, or if there is a need to understand the limits of published knowledge.Comments on listed publications are the responsibility of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation Inc., the Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust, the Australian National Botanic Gardens, or other distributors of this document. Fair copying for personal or educational use is permitted, with attribution.

 

Recommended citation: Makinson RO & Jordan CL (2019) Australian plant identification – a

resource bibliography. Australian Network for Plant Conservation Inc., Canberra. www.anpc.asn.au

 

 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This bibliography has its roots in a short list of resources first developed in the early 1990s, and has grown to reflect the burgeoning level of publishing in this field. Much of the work was done while the authors were employed at the Australian National Botanic Gardens (Jordan, Makinson) and the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (Makinson) – those institutions are thanked for the use of their libraries and computing resources.

Thanks are due to the following people for giving much help in preparing this and previous iterations of the bibliography:

Heidi Zimmer (Australian Network for Plant Conservation); David L. Jones;  Prof. Paul Adam; Judith Curnow and Heino Lepp (Australian National Herbarium, Canberra); Anna Hallett, Miguel Garcia, and Stephen Skinner (Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust, Sydney); Tom May and Neville Walsh (Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne); and to participants in the Australian National Herbarium annual Student Botanical Internship Program (1997: Lyall Bogie and Frank Stadler; 1998: Kirsten Overeem; 2003: Kate Alexander, Simon Dwyer, Ruth Fleming, Lana Heydon, Molly Hicks,  Kylie Johnson, Laura Maurice, Peter McCrorey, Angelina McRae, Jessica Newton, Katherine Nelson, Lyndsey Vivian, Ian Warren, Leilani Weier,  Petra Wilhelm, Prudence Wing Sze Ng, Mark Williams, Jessica van der Werf).

  

CONTENTS

5 – 7                 INTRODUCTION

                        Scope of the bibliography

                        Organisation and content of the bibliography

                        Availability of listed works

                        Why are so many works included?

                        “Recommended” works

 

8 – 10   PLANT IDENTIFICATION – WHERE TO START

 

11        PART 1:  RESOURCES BY GEOGRAPHICAL REGION: NATIONAL, STATE/TERRITORY, AND LOCAL, including public identification services, flora information systems, floras, censuses, and general field guides.

11 – 17             National

18 – 29             Queensland    

                                    General, south-east, other areas

30 – 47             New South Wales (including Australian Capital Territory)

                        State; Sydney and Blue Mountains; south-eastern (nonSydney) & A.C.T.; other regions

48 – 58             Victoria  General; regional and local

59 – 64             Tasmania

64 – 71             South Australia

72 – 83             Western Australia General; South-west; Other (Shark Bay to Kimberley; eastern inland)

84 – 90             Northern Territory

91 – 94             Offshore islands and external territories 

 

 

 

95        Part 2:  RESOURCES FOR MAJOR PLANT GROUPS AND HABITATS

95 – 98             Acacia

                        Aizoaceae – see Succulents

                        Algae (marine) – see Marine plants and marine algae

                        Algae (non-marine) – see Aquatic (Non-Marine) & Wetland Plants

                        Allocasuarina – see Casuarinaceae

                        Angophora – see Myrtaceae: Eucalypts

                        Anigozanthos – see Kangaroo Paws

99 – 103           Aquatic (non-marine) and wetland plants and algae

                        (for saltmarsh see ‘SEA-SHORE’)

104 – 105         Asteraceae

                        Boronia – see Rutaceae.

            Bottle-brushes – see Myrtaceae: Non-Eucalypts

Bottle-Trees – see under Succulents.

Brachychiton (Flame Trees, Kurrajongs) – see under Succulents.

                        Bryophytes – see Cryptogams

                        Caesalpiniaceae – see Pea-flowers (Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae

                        Callistemon – see Myrtaceae: Non-Eucalypts

105 – 106         Carnivorous plants

106                  Casuarinaceae 

106 – 107         Chenopodiaceae (see also under Succulents.)

107 – 108         Climbing plants

109 – 112         Cryptogams – Lichens

112 – 115         Cryptogams – Mosses

116 – 117         Cryptogams – Hepatics (Liverworts & Hornworts

Conifers – see Gymnosperms

                        Corymbia (bloodwoods) – see Myrtaceae: Eucalypts

                        Cycads – see Gymnosperms

                        Daisies – see Asteraceae

Diatoms (freshwater) – see Aquatic (non-marine) and wetland

                        Eremophila – see Emu Bushes

                        Eucalypts – see Myrtaceae: Eucalypts

117                  Emu Bushes (Eremophila)

118 – 119         Ferns & fern-allies

119 – 126         Fungi and slime moulds (Myxomycetes)

126                   Goodeniaceae

127 – 134          Grasses

                        Grevillea – see Proteaceae

135                  Grassland plants

135 – 136          Gymnosperms (conifers, cycads)

                        Hakea – see Proteaceae

                        Hornworts – see Cryptogams: Hepatics

137                  Kangaroo Paws (Anigozanthos)

                        Legumes – see  Acacia, Pea-Flowers

                        Leptospermum – see Myrtaceae: non-Eucalypts

                        Lichens – see Cryptogams: Lichens

                        Liverworts – see Cryptogams: Hepatics

137                 Mallee plants (see also Myrtaceae: Eucalypts)

138 – 139          Mangroves

                        Melaleuca  – see Myrtaceae: non-Eucalypts

                        Mosses – see Cryptogams: Mosses

                        Myxomycetes, Myxomycota – see Fungi

139 – 144          Marine plants and marine algae (see also Sea-shore plants)

144 – 145         Mistletoes

                        Mosses – see Cryptogams: Mosses

145 – 150         Myrtaceae – Eucalypts

150 – 152         Myrtaceae – non-eucalypts

152 – 159         Orchids

159 – 160         Palms

160 – 162         Pea-flowers (Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae)

162 – 163         Poisonous plants

                        Pollen – see Seeds, Pollen and Spores

163 – 167         Proteaceae

                                Pteridophytes – see Ferns & Fern-Allies

167 – 174         Rainforest plants

174                  Rutaceae

174 – 176         Sea-shore plants (beach, dune, and saltmarsh)

                        Salt-bushes – see Chenopodiaceae

                        Seagrasses – see Marine plants and marine algae

                        Seaweeds  – see Marine plants and marine algae

176 – 177         Sedges and rushes (see also ‘Aquatic (non-marine) and wetland plants)

178 – 180         Seeds, pollen and spores

                        She-oaks – see Casuarinaceae

                        Slime-moulds – see Fungi

                        Stylidium – see Triggerplants

180                  Solanaceae

181 – 182        Succulents

                                Tea-trees, ti-trees – see Myrtaceae: Non-Eucalypts

183 – 193         Threatened and rare plants 

193                  Triggerplants

                        Waratahs – see Proteaceae

                        Wattles – see Acacia

194 – 209         Weeds

                        Wetland plants – see Aquatic (non-marine) and wetland plants and algae

INTRODUCTION

 

Scope of the bibliography

This bibliography lists publications and other resources for the identification of plants growing wild in Australia, whether native (indigenous) or naturalised (non-Australian or‘exotic’ in origin, now established outside cultivation). Horticultural (garden) plants are covered only incidentally.

 

This bibliography is intended to be of most use to those who are not professional botanists. For this reason, it lists mainly books, booklets, and electronic resources that have been released in the mainstream retail trade or free on-line. With a very few exceptions, it does not list the many authoritative and technical botanical monographs and journal articles that are the first point of publication of most of our botanical knowledge, and from which most of the more popular books are ultimately derived. Such journals are more difficult for the public to access – but you may still need to do so (see Disclaimer above).  The easiest point of access for the more technical journal literature in hardcopy is usually the library at your State/Territory herbarium or botanic garden, or university libraries. For digitised material a specialist search engine (e.g. Google Scholar) or one of the scientific indexing services is recommended.

 

This bibliography provides guidance as to what resources exist for what regions or plant groups, a general indication of currency, and assessments of authority and comprehensiveness.

 

Feedback

We have undoubtedly missed good regional, local or specialised publications – we would like to hear about them for future editions. Please contact email anpc@anpc.asn.au and start your subject line with ‘ID Bib’.  We are aware that very few social media plant identification resources are included here – we would like to include these if they are demonstrably stable and have a history of providing authoritative identifications or referrals.

 

Note to authors and publishers

Please be aware that the ANPC bulletin Australasian Plant Conservation is a good avenue for publicising new publications to the botanical and conservation communities. Please consider providing a review copy of new works or editions (see https://www.anpc.asn.au/apc/)

 

Organisation and content of the bibliography

The categories used are self-evident from the Contents list above. Not all plant groups have dedicated works outside the scientific literature – for such groups, and indeed for some of those for which there are sections here, the best available identification tools may not be group-specific publications, but others listed under FLORAS AND GENERAL FIELD GUIDES.

 

Entries in each category are alphabetical by first author.  Some publications by local authorities or enthusiast societies do not have a designated author, in which case publisher is listed as author.

 

For each work (book, CD-ROM/USB, or website), we give:

  • Title
  • Author/s
  • Date of publication
  • Publisher
  • Number of pages
  • ISBN number. For pre-2007 publications, the ISBN is in the ten-digit format that applied at the time of publication; the corresponding ISBN numbers in the newer 13-digit system have mostly only been captured for post-2007 material.
  • Website URL (if available in digitised form)
  • Then follow a few lines describing the content and standard of the publication.

 

Availability of listed works

Many listed publications are no longer in print, but we include them because many out-of-print titles are still in active use and circulation, may still be useful, or editions because individuals and libraries may want to assess their older books against newer options before making the investment – new books are expensive! Only latest are shown for most titles, but in some cases earlier editions may still be of use, although obsolete to some degree.

 

Some out-of-print works may be found in specialist libraries only, but others have a long career on the household bookshelf or through second-hand bookshops, and may remain popular for decades. New, very local field guides (some of them excellent for the limited areas covered) are being produced every year, and may only be available locally or from private publishers.

 

If your local bookshop cannot obtain a publication, we suggest you contact the shop, visitor centre, or library at the Botanic Garden or Herbarium in your nearest capital city. These institutions, along with regional botanic gardens and regional offices of conservation and primary industries agencies, will also often have a public reference library containing some of these books.

 

Why are so many works included?

Plant enthusiasts often have preferred and much-loved books for identification, but these may be increasingly out-of-date, or include only a small proportion of the species that occur in the area they cover. We have nevertheless thought it best to try for a fairly comprehensive list that allows some comparison of content and relevance, rather than to cull by date, size, or other criteria.

 

Older books should be used with caution, as many scientific names and much other information will be obsolete. Botanical knowledge of Australian plants has advanced greatly in the last thirty years, largely as a result of the Flora of Australia project, a continuing national cooperative effort of scientific research and publication, aimed at documenting all the plant life of the continent. The Flora of Australia is coordinated by the Australian Biological Resources Study (see http://www.environment.gov.au/science/abrs/publications), and content is being progressively put on-line (http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/)   The Flora, and other State and Territory research programs, have resulted in recent years in the recognition of very many new genera, species and subspecies, with names and descriptions that do not appear in older publications.

 

This national scientific effort has led to not only many more technical papers, but also a faster flow-through of information from specialist journals to the more accessible Floras, handbooks and field-guides.  Even so, for fully authoritative identification and up-to-date information in many plant groups it is often still necessary to supplement books with a careful examination of recent scientific journal papers, or to refer specimens to an expert.

 

“Recommended” works

Within each category, some works are flagged as RECOMMENDED.  For the sake of brevity we have used this single tag, rather than a hierarchy of ratings, but the ‘recommended’ rating should be interpreted against the taxonomic and geographic scope of the work, its date, and the evaluation comments provided.

 

For example, for FLORAS, a ‘recommended’ tag will mean that the work is authoritative and/or comprehensive, and should be used as a benchmark for all really serious identification work (subject to its date of publication!). Floras contain technical language but are still usable by a lay person prepared to learn terminology for the group of interest.

 

For GENERAL FIELD GUIDES and BOOKS ON MAJOR PLANT GROUPS, a ‘recommended’ tag is applied based a combination of authoritativeness, comprehensiveness, breadth of geographic or taxonomic area covered, reliability and ease of use, excellence of illustration, or simply that it is the best available for a poorly documented group or area. 

 

Lack of a ‘recommended’ tag against any work does not necessarily mean that the work is not a good one for its defined scope. With a few exceptions, we have not assigned ‘recommended’ status to small-region handbooks and works of purely local scope, however good.

 

Different users will have their own criteria for deciding which book is best for them – extensive images, plain-English versus technical terminology, availability of identification keys, relevant geographic scope, or size and robustness of a book for use in the field.

 

Where a user needs to identify and name plants for reasons that may carry implications of legal or professional liability (e.g. contract surveys for development proposals, threatened plant surveys, and other risk-related work), the literature listed in this guide should not be regarded as exhaustive. Recourse to both recent specialist journals and expert guidance is advised.

 

PLANT IDENTIFICATION – WHERE TO START

 

The notes following each entry in this bibliography are intended to give guidance as to how comprehensive, current and  authoritative each one is. In general, more recent resources are more reliable. Most reliable and comprehensive of all are the national, State and regional works called Floras. If recently published, these will be the most scientifically up to date, and other types of handbooks tend to draw their information from these Floras (or from the research publications on which the Flora treatments are based).  Floras do have technical terms in their text, especially for tricky groups like orchids, grasses, daisies, fungi, etc. These terms are usually well-explained, and often illustrated, in a glossary or in the text. Floras always contain keys to species (a key is a series of yes/no questions about the features of a plant or plant specimen, that helps you to identify the species you have by progressively eliminating others). Keys, if up to date, are a very reliable way to identify plants, but the technical language can put people off.

 

An alternative approach is offered by many field handbooks, which emphasise illustrations of plants, often grouped by flower-colour, life form, or habitat type, and with only supplementary text. The user can browse the photographs and compare them with the specimen to be identified. These handbooks tend to be less than comprehensive, and less reliable as a definitive resource for identification, although some are very good.

 

If you are uncertain where to start, or how to use an identification key, an excellent introduction to identification techniques is:

 

  • Clarke I & Lee H (2003)  Name that flower: the identification of flowering plants. 2nd ed. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Vic.  299 pp. ISBN 052285060X. 

This provides an easy introduction to understanding the parts of the plant and the necessary terminology. It is not for identification to species, but is an excellent “how to” book, and for many Australian native plants may allow identification to family or genus level.

 

  • Clarke I (2015) Name those Grasses. Identifying Grasses, sedges and Rushes. Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, Vic. 536 pp. ISBN 9780980407648. 

A how to identify’ guide for these groups, rather than a comprehensive species guide, although 206 species are covered as examples, many of them common.  As with Clark & Lee’s (2003) general Name that Flower, this is a fabulous primer for improving your identification skills – in this case in three large groups that are often found intimidating. Illustrated throughout with excellent and well-labelled line drawings that help to decrypt the most difficult characters.

 

For field use in understanding plant parts (morphology) for beginners, a handy resource is:

  • Mager S & Burrows G [undated, c. 2010?] Botanical Field Guide (5th edition). Aracariaguides Publications (http://www.aracariaguides.com is non-operational at April 2019) ; postal: Aracaria Biodynamic Farm, PO Box 480 Mullumbimby NSW  2482; $15.00 rrp in 2015).  ISBN lacking.

This A4 8-leaf laminated foldout guide is tough enough for field use, and very clearly explains some 400 terms of plant morphology via about 280 colour images.

Also handy for learning about plant morphology are the following resources:

Charles Sturt University Virtual Herbarium http://www.csu.edu.au/herbarium/

(ELECTRONIC RESOURCES: ON-LINE – some interactivity):

  •       The Virtual Floral Formula: a ‘floral formula’ is a concise, coded way of characterising the arrangement of flower parts. It is occasionally provided in identification literature and in more detailed texts on genera and families; perhaps its main use for plant-spotters is to enable rapid recording of the floral arrangement in the field or during the ID process when cross-checking literature.  This website provides definitions, examples and an on-line tutorial in how to determine and use floral formulae.
  •       Australian Plant Family recognition: this provides a summary of useful diagnostic characters for a dozen or so of the main Australian plant families, plus tutorials and interactive tests.
  •       Gynoecium – a guide to flora structure: “Aspects of the sepals, petals and androecium (stamens) are usually relatively straightforward but interpreting the structure of the gynoecium often causes problems. This guide aims to reduce these problems by illustrating various aspects of the gynoecium”, such as ovary position and carpel structure, via definitions and a pictorial glossary.
  • Floral symmetry: an illustrated glossary of terms to help you identify presence and type of symmetry (a common character in family keys).
  • Leaves – a guide to leaf structure: an illustrated glossary covering leaf arrangement, insertion, and (in overly simplified form) leaf division.

 

For more advanced use, an excellent and extensively illustrated glossary of key characters for all plant families occurring in Australia can be found on the interactive resource:

  • Thiele KR & Adams LG (2014) Families of flowering plants of Australia – an interactive identification guide. Second revised edition. ABRS Identification Series, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic./Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. FLASH DRIVE, ISBNs: 9781486301997. 

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: INTERACTIVE

The first (2002) edition CD-ROM (ISBN 0643067213) is equally useful for this  glossary aspect.

 

For very difficult identifications to family and genus level, especially where cultivated or newly naturalised plants are concerned, the following specialist work may be useful (ask your herbarium or university library if they have it):

  • Kubitzki K (general editor) (various dates from 1990) The families and genera of flowering plants. Springer, Heidelberg.

This encyclopaedic work, global in scope and still in progress, includes a vast amount of information, including morphological descriptive data and identification keys to subfamilies and genera, along with phylogenetic, biological, and ecological information. While the older volumes are naturally dating, this remains the most comprehensive family-level survey of the plant Kingdom.

  • 1 (eds KU Kramer & PS Green) (1990) Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms.
  • II (eds K Kubitzki, JG Rohwer & V Bittrich) (1993) Flowering plants: Dicotyledons: Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid familes.
  • III (ed K Kubitzki) (1998) Flowering plants: Monocotyledons: Lilianae (except Orchidaceae).
  • Vol IV (ed K Kubitzki) (1998) Flowering plants: Monocotyledons: Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae).
  • Vol V (ed K Kubitzki & C Bayer) (2003) Flowering plants: Dicotyledons: Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales.
  • Vol VI (ed K Kubitzki) (2004) Flowering plants: Dicotyledons: Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales, Ericales.
  • Vol VII (ed. JW Kadereit) (2004) Flowering plants: Dicotyledons: Lamiales (except Acanthaceae including Avicenniaceae).
  • Vol VIII (ed. JW Kadereit & C Jeffery) (2007) Flowering plants: Eudicots: Asterales.
  • Vol IX (ed K Kubitzki) (2007) Flowering plants: Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossomatales, Fabales p.p., Geraniales, Gunnerales, Myrtales p.p., Proteales, Saxifragales, Vitales, Zygophyllales, Clusiaceae Alliance, Passifloraceae Alliance, Dilleniaceae, Huaceae, Picramniaceae, Sabiaceae.
  • Vol X (ed K Kubitzki) (2011) Flowering plants: Eudicots: Sapindales, Cucurbitales, Myrtaceae.
  • Vol XI (ed. K. Kubitzki) (2014) Flowering plants: Eudocots: Malphigiales. ALSO AVAILABLE AS E-BOOK: ISBN 9783642394171 eBook).
  • XII (authors J. Kuijt & B Hansen) (2015) Flowering plants: Eudocots: Santalales, Balanophorales. ALSO AVAILABLE AS E-BOOK: ISBN 9783319092966 eBook).

 

 

Scientific names can be confusing at first sight, but their principles are easy to master. ‘Plant nomenclature’ – how the scientific naming system operates – is dealt with in very readable fashion in:

  • Spencer R, Cross R, Lumley P (2007) Plant Names – A Guide to Botanical Nomenclature. 3rd edition. CSIRO Publishing. 176 pp. ISBN-10: 0643094407, ISBN-13: 9780643094406.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: e-book version: Also available as an e-book (ISBN-10: 9780643097162, ISBN-13:0643097163) —  see http://www.publish.csiro.au/pid/5707.htm for details.

This excellent book covers the naming of wild and domesticated plants, why plant names change, their pronunciation, and hints to help remember them. The final section provides a detailed guide to web sites and published resources useful to people using plant names. (This edition supersedes earlier ones of the same title by Lumley & Spencer, which remain useful).

 

 

 

 

Part 1:  Resources by geographical region:

national, State/Territory, and local,

 including public identification services, flora information systems, floras, censuses, and general field guides.

 

Floras are scientifically authoritative books used to identify all plants of a particular region. They are usually comprehensive (up to date of publication), and provide moderately to highly technical identification keys and short descriptions for all families, genera and species, together with explanatory glossaries, and sometimes line drawings or photographs. In several jurisdictions the printed Floras have been, or are being, translated into on-line electronic form as flora information systems, allowing wider and free delivery and more frequent updating. Both types of product are usually produced by a government Herbarium, that will often also have a plant identification service.

 

Handbooks and field-guides tend to be more heavily illustrated and written in a more plain-English style than Floras.  However they are often not fully comprehensive (concentrating on the more common or conspicuous species), the descriptions are often very abbreviated, and they may or may not contain identification keys.

 

Identification services listed here are those offered by major metropolitan or some regional herbaria.  Be aware that some regional botanic gardens, and some some offices of environmental, primary industry and forestry agencies, may also house herbarium-style reference collections (specimens or photos) and/or be able to provide expert advice.  Only space and time have prevented us from surveying and including these as specific options.

 

 

NATIONAL

 

Herbaria with identification services

 

Australian National Herbarium (Canberra) (part of the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, Canberra)

www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/plant-enquiry-service/index.html
Scope: Plant, lichen and and macrofungal identifications and advice on most botanical subjects. No service for algae.

Charges: Free for members of the public and for not-for-profit organisations (limit of 10 specimens per batch). Undergraduate students needing identifications as part of assignments must have tried using the Public Reference Herbarium first (see below); postgraduate students should discuss needs well ahead of time via the Herbarium Curator. Fees apply for commercial inquiries or batches of more than 10 specimens (reductions may apply for good collections useful for the herbarium and for collaborative projects)..

Submission of specimens: See website for guidance on collecting and preparing specimens and on data requirements.  Specimens should be submitted at the Visitor Centre at the Australian National Botanic Gardens, Black Mountain (9.30-4.30 every day except Christmas Day). For mail submission please ensure specimens are prepared and air-dried (see website guidelines). Postal address: Plant Enquiry Service, Australian National Botanic Gardens, GPO Box 1777, CANBERRA, ACT, 2601.

Self-help: A Public Reference Herbarium is located in the Botanical Resource Centre at the Australian National Botanic Gardens, Clunies Ross St, Acton. This is a reference set of pressed specimens covering native and naturalised plants of the A.C.T., and the NSW Southern Tablelands, Australian Alps and South Coast. It is open for use by the public 9:30am – 4:30pm daily (but please book via the Visitor Centre on 02 6250 9450). First -time users must have an introductory session from one of the Facilitators. The Resource Centre has a microscope, botanical books, and a computer with interactive identification tools and links to the Internet.

 

The main State and Territory Herbaria (listed under jurisdiction headings below) can often also tackle enquiries on a national scale, with cross-referral where necessary.

 

 

National – Plant Census and Plant Name Index

 

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (ongoing) Australian Plant Census

https://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/

The Australian Plant Census (APC) is not an identification guide, but provides essential background information on the taxonomy and authorship for the Australian flowering plants, ferns, gymnosperms, hornworts and liverworts, both native and introduced. It also includes a coded summary statement of national distribution of each taxon. This may help narrow the field for difficult identifications within a group.

APC provides a list of currently accepted names, but does not provide full details of their usage in the taxonomic literature. For comprehensive bibliographic information, see the Australian Plant Name Index database (APNI, below). Be aware that a few species names may vary from one Australian jurisdiction to another, depending on what is recognised by the local authority (e.g. State Herbarium) – the APC designation of ‘currently accepted’ represents a more-or-less consensual national view but differences of scientific opinion do occur.  Also note that plant names on legislative lists may sometimes be scientifically obsolete, but this does not affect the validity of their listing.  APC is a work in progress – the nomenclatural inventory of some families is not yet completely up to date.

 

Australian National Herbarium (ongoing) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI).

http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html

APNI is another background resource for the plant identification process. APNI is a comprehensive index of plant scientific names applied to the Australian flora and their authorship, publication history and usage, irrespective of whether the name is currently recognised or is regarded as a synonym. APNI does not recommend any particular taxonomy or nomenclature – for a listing of currently accepted scientific names for the Australian vascular flora, see the Australian Plant Census (APC, above), which is linked from the APNI site.

 

 

Flora of Australia series (and Fungi~ and Algae of Australia series)

 

Note that depending on dates of publication, some State and Territory Floras and flora information system websites may be more up to date for some regions or taxonomic groups – see separate sections of this bibliography.

 

Flora of Australia (various authors and editors,  many volumes, publication proceeding).

Published initially by Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, and later by CSIRO Publishing, 1981-to present.

This series is an ongoing national project (target 60 volumes) to document all the native and naturalised plant and lichen species occurring in Australia. Each plant family is critically reviewed for the series. An index listing the families in each published or projected volume can be found inside the covers of each volume, or at the ABRS Website:  http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/publications/flora-of-australia/list.html

Each volume is comprehensive up to date of publication (a few volumes are now very out of date). All species and subspecies are described, many are illustrated, and technical identification keys are provided. Depending on date of publication and allowing for some new research results since, many volumes remain authoritative texts for theoir groups and are here RECOMMENDED – see Plant Groups section below for some of these. Vol. 1 (2nd edn) has a useful glossary, an evolutionary history of Australian vegetation and of Australian botanical science, and a key to families occurring in Australia.

 ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: Flora of Australia Online: Content of the printed Flora of Australia volumes is progressively being placed on-line, available from http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/ .

This site allows search by taxon name and access to full text files including keys,but omits introductory chapters.

 

For a quick check of what families have or have not yet been digitised, see http://www.environment.gov.au/science/abrs/publications/flora-of-australia (includes in/out-of-print status of hardcopy volumes, and links to the on-line database for those with digitised content.).

 

Algae of Australia (http://www.environment.gov.au/science/abrs/publications/algae) and 

Fungi of Australia (http://www.environment.gov.au/science/abrs/publications/fungi-of-australia) are companion series covering those groups.  Several hardcopy volumes have been published in each (see relavant sections of this bibliography) but as at 2015 there are no near-term plans for digitisation.

 

Australian Plant Image Index

 

Australian National Botanic Gardens (ongoing) Australian Plant Image Index (APII). Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian National Herbarium (Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research), Canberra. ELECTRONIC ON-LINE: http://www.anbg.gov.au/photo/

APII comprises a very large set of authenticated plant images, actively curated (but allow for some time lags in adjustment to new nomenclature, hence some obsolete identifications).  There are a number of search options.  The Index includes both digitised images (presented in low-res), and entries for as-yet undigitized images held in the ANBG collection. Access to high-resolution versions require contact with the Index staff. Contact and copyright/usage details are on the website.

 

Other resources for national-scope identification to family level

 

Thiele KR & Adams LG (2014) Families of flowering plants of Australia – an interactive identification guide. Second revised edition. ABRS Identification Series, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic./Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. FLASH DRIVE, ISBNs: 9781486301997. 

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE – INTERACTIVE: flash drive

The tool of choice for determining to what family a wild plant sample taken within Australia belongs, covering all native and naturalised families occurring in Australia and its Island Territories. Easy-to-use interactive key, running on the LucID system, with links to an illustrated glossary of terms. Both full and short-diagnostic family descriptions are given, with lists of genera, notes, and over 1500 colour photos and line drawings of representative species. The first (2002) edition on CD-ROM (ISBN 0643067213) remains useful. 

HIGHLY RECOMMENDED

 

Orchard AE (1999) Key to families of flowering plantsIn: (pp 521-584) Flora of Australia vol. 1: Introduction. 2nd edition. (AE Orchard & HS Thompson, eds). ABRS/CSIRO Australia. ISBN 0643059652 hbk.

A standard dichotomous key to the families of flowering plants that are recorded as having species (native or naturalised exotic) in Australia.  This volume also includes a series of background chapters on the Australan flora, not directly related to identification.

The Flora of Australia series is being progressively digitised and placed on line (http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/), but as at June 2015 this volume is not digitally available.

 

KeyBase: teaching old keys new tricks. (Multiple authors; ongoing).

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE: limited interactivity: http://keybase.rbg.vic.gov.au/ 

KeyBase is a large scale project that is synchronising separately published dichotomous keys within various plant groups, after parsing the key elements into a relational database. The aim is to allow (among other things):

  • The generation of ‘seamless’ composite keys (e.g. stitching together a good and up-to-date key to genera within a family at national level, with previously separate keys to species and subspecies within one or more of those genera).
  • Allowing the generation by the user of ‘filtered’ or tailored keys (e.g. abridging a national key to a State, region, or locality of interest).
  • Rapidly ascertaining what character-states the authors of the contributing keys have regarded as most diagnostic between any two related taxa.

KeyBase is a work in progress, but is already of significant potential use. However some familiarity with the structure and use (and preferably generation) of dichotomous keys is an advantage in using it, and keep a weather eye out for the vagaries that may arise from different original authors using the same terminology in somewhat different ways.

As at April 2019, partial or comprehensive keys are available for: Flowering plants of Australia, Queensland, Tasmania and Western Australia; Floras of NSW, Victoria, South Australia, Northern Territory,and ACT; Mosses and Ferns/Fern Allies of Australia; and the Horticultural Flora of South-eastern Australia. For further background see Knapp et al. (2016) in Australasian Plant Conservation 25(1): 5-6.

 

Morley BD & Toelken HR (eds.) (1983) Flowering plants in Australia, Rigby, Adelaide.  416 pp.  ISBN 0727014773

In its day a useful single-volume overview at family level, including keys to all families and genera, but it is now well out of date – family and genus recognition, genus nomenclature, and flora statistics have all evolved greatly since its publication. Nevertheless a second-hand copy can be occasionally useful for placement to family, used in conjunction with more up to date resources. Keys to all families and genera of plants, native or naturalized, in Australia, with diagnostic and distributional information. Good glossary; useful illustrations of selected genera for each family. Still good for general interest but be aware of the obsolescence.

 

Watson L & Dallwitz MJ (1992 onwards) The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. (Version 11 May 2015). No ISBN. Website: http://delta-intkey.com/angio/index.htm

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE – ON-LINE INTERACTIVE with downloadable app; DVD version also available.

Web-based information and identification system for plant families of the world, running on the DELTA system. Descriptive data is directly available on the above website, or as a DVD; the interactive identification component requires downloading (free) of the linked Intkey app. The characters scored for each family, in addition to fairly obvious morphological features, include geographical distributions, details of leaf and stem anatomy, embryology, germination syndrome, physiology, biochemistry and cytology. These data elements are all available for identification purposes or as part of a consolidated text diagnosis. Illustrations are provided for a few selected genera from each family. The latest edition of this package (April 2015) incorporates the family-level reclassification of flowering plant families by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG III, 2009).

 

Miscellaneous national-scope general interest guides

 

A number of handbooks attempt a snapshot approach to identification across the Australian flora or parts thereof. These are inevitably not comprehensive, and are more for general interest – they should not be relied upon for diagnostic identification, although the information they contain on particular species may be perfectly valid.

 

Boland DJ et al. (2006) Forest trees of Australia. 5th  edn. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic.  736 pp.  ISBN 0643069690 (9780643069695).

Not comprehensive and showing the signs of repeated updates, but enduringly popular. Over 300 species are covered and species treatments and nomenclature have been revised throughout. Lacks keys, but has descriptions and notes, including forestry information, with b/w photos and some line drawings.

 

Cronin L (2000) Key guide: Australian wildflowers. Revised edition. Envirobook, Annandale NSW. 224 pp. ISBN 0858811707.

A casual-interest guide only, to about 600 species, with a pictorial and colour key to groups,  plain-language descriptions and fair to good colour paintings.

 

Cronin L (2007) Cronin’s Key Guide: Australian trees. Jacana Books, Crows Nest, NSW, 190 pp.  ISBN 9781741751093.

A casual-interest guide only, to about 325 species, with plain-language descriptions and good colour illustrations. Contains a simple pictorial key based on leaf form.

 

Elliot G (1990) Australian plants identified : a home gardener’s guide to the identification of over 1000 commonly grown Australian native plants. Hyland House,  South Yarra, Vic. 232 pp.  ISBN 0947062637.

The subtitle is accurate; useful for visual identification, usually only to genus, across a range of families. An introductory chapter on plant classification and parts is followed by a colour-photo guide to over 200 genera; then sections on the major families and genera, with easy-to-use keys to the commoner genera, and some detail to species level only for the very commonly grown species.

 

Elliot WR & Jones DL (1980-2002) Encyclopedia of Australian plants suitable for cultivation.  Lothian. South Melbourne.  (8 vols. to date)

Introduction (1980): 336 pp., ISBN 0850910706.  Vol. 1 (rev. edn.) (1983): 336 pp., ISBN 0850911427. Vol. 2  (1982): 517 pp. ISBN 0850911435. Vol. 3 (1984) 516 pp., ISBN 0850911672. Vol. 4 (1986): 447 pp., ISBN 085091213X. Vol. 5 (1990): 512 pp., ISBN 0805913292. Vol. 6 (1993): 509 pp., ISBN 0850915899. Vol. 7 (1997): 479 pp., ISBN 0850916348. Vol. 8 (2002): 46pp., ISBN 073440378X.   Vol. 9 (2010) 571pp., ISBN-13 9780734409744.  Ring-bound Supplements issued:  No 1 (1994) ISBN 0850916593; No 2 (1995) ISBN 0850916968; No 3 (1996) ISBN 0850917824.

Popular general-interest treatment. Many coloured photos and line illustrations; alphabetical by genus and species; useful short descriptions and (intro volume) cultivation notes; no identification keys. Earlier volumes are now becoming very dated.

 

Greig D (1999) Field guide to Australian wildflowers: over 1000 common Australian wildflowers,  New Holland, Frenchs Forest, NSW.  442 pp.  ISBN 1864363347.

Entries are organised alphabetically by family, genus, and species, with fair to excellent colour photos, and very brief descriptions The taxonomy is now dated. Despite the number of species and the national scope, this can only account for about 5% of our plant species; it is of use to those wanting only a very general guide, for identification to genus level and perhaps to species in some groups.

 

Greig D (1998)  A Photographic guide to trees of Australia. New Holland. 144 pp. ISBN-10 1864363266,  ISBN-13 9781864363265.

Colour photos and descriptive notes, covering about 170 species.

 

Hodgson M & Paine R (1971, 1977) Australian wildflowers. Rigby, Adelaide.

vol. 1 (1971, reprints to 1984), 251 pp.,  ISBN 0851792553. vol. 2 (1977), 254 pp., ISBN 0727002031.

Now so dated and non-comprehensive as to be of only historical interest, but an interesting attempt in its day. Short descriptions and notes, with stylised colour paintings of each species.

 

Holliday, I  (2002) A field guide to Australian trees. 3rd edition. Reprinted 2010. Reed New Holland. 328 pp. ISBN-10: 1876334797, ISBN-13: 9781876334796

Covers more than 400 species, with a fair representation of eucalypts and acacias and many rainforest trees, with plain-English descriptions and about 150 photographs plus line drawings. No keys. A mid-level interst guide.

 

Spencer, R (ed.) (1995-2002) Horticultural flora of south-eastern Australia: the identification of garden and cultivated plants . University of NSW Press, Sydney. (4 vols to date)  ISBN 0868401676 (set).

Vol. 1 (1995): Ferns, conifers and their allies. 464 pp.,  ISBN 0868402060.

vol. 2 (1997) Flowering plants. Dicotyledons part 1.  606 pp., ISBN 0868403032.

Vol. 3 (2002) Flowering plants. Dicotyledons part 2.  619 pp., ISBN-10: 0868406600; ISBN-13: 978-0868406602.

Vol. 4 (2002) Flowering plants. Dicotyledons part 3. 534 pp., ISBN 0868406848.

Vol. 5 (2005 ) Flowering plants. Monocotyledons. 638 pp. ISBN-10: 0868408328; ISBN-13: 978-0868408323.

Guide to the native and exotic plants likely to be found in horticultural situations, with general and cultivation notes. RECOMMENDED as a reference for southern Australia including when trying to identify marginally naturalised plants that may be garden escapes.

 

Wrigley JW & Fagg M (2013)  Australian native plants: propagation, cultivation and use in landscaping and. 6th edn. New Holland Publications, Sydney.  720 pp.  ISBN 0730104931.

Not intended as an identification resource, but useful as one for cultivated forms of native species (especially cultivars and hybrids) where no other literature is available. Short one-paragraph descriptions for several thousand species, varieties and hybrids (but not comprehensive), with occasional line drawings and colour photos. A concise version of the earlier 5th edition is also available, covering about 1,500 taxa: Wrigley JW & Fagg M (2007) Australian Native Plants – Concise Edition. New Holland. 400 pp. ISBN 9781877069406.

 

 

 

 

 

QUEENSLAND

 

Note that depending on dates of publication, the Flora of Australia may provide more up to date treatments than some State-specific printed resources. See http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/

 

This section lists general cross-family resources, mainly of the ‘plants-of-area’ sort. For additional resources, see other sections of this bibliography (e.g. Weeds, Threatened Species, particular plant groups or habitats, Algae, Fungi).

 

Queensland: Herbaria with identification services

 

Queensland Herbarium [Brisbane]

https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/plants-animals/plants/herbarium/

Phone: 07 3896 9326

Email: Queensland.Herbarium@qld.gov.au

Scope:  Identification and information on wild plants (including weeds) and vegetation; also information on poisonous properties.

Charges: apply for commercial clients – make contact for info.

Submission of plant material: For over-the-counter submission, hours are 9am -5pm weekdays.

There is a pro-forma for inquiries, and guidelines for collection and preparation of specimens – see https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/plants-animals/plants/herbarium/identify-specimens/

Self-help: The Public Reference Centre has a specimen collection representative of most Queensland plants, and a selection of reference books. Access by prior appointment.

Postal and street address: Botanical Information and Advisory Service, Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Mt Coot-tha Rd, Toowong QLD 4066

 

Australian Tropical Herbarium [Cairns]

http://www.ath.org.au

Scope: ATH offers a range of botanical information services, including plant identification.

Charges:  Free for general public (up to 6 specimens per year, after which charges apply).

Charges apply for all commercial identification.

Self-help: The Public Reference Collection has a has a developing reference set for all the native and naturalised plant species of North Queensland. Microscope, computer, and some support material (literature, and interactive tools) are available. Opening times: 9:30am to 4:00pm weekdays (closed on Public Holidays). No appointment necessary, but register on arrival. A fee may apply is substantial staff assistance is needed.

Street Address: Australian Tropical Herbarium, Sir Robert Norman Building (E2), James Cook University, MacGregor Road, Smithfield, Cairns QLD 4878, Australia.

Postal Address: Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University, PO Box 6811,

Cairns, QLD 4870, Australia.

 

Censuses and checklists

 

Queensland Herbarium (2014) Census of the Queensland flora. Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts: Brisbane. https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/plants-animals/plants/herbarium/publications/

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE.

Not an identification tool as such, but a background resource, this census lists all known native and naturalised species of plants, algae, fungi and lichens in the State. It has two components:

https://data.qld.gov.au/dataset/census-of-the-queensland-flora-2014, and is presented in spreadsheets with options for: all combined records, full dataset, vascular plants, non-vascular plants, red and green algae, macrofungi, lichens, Chromista (brown algae and diatoms), bacteria, plants naturalised in Qld, and Australian native plants naturalised in Qld..

 

While now dated in some respects, the following regional checklists may also be useful:

 

Forster PI & Burgess R (eds) (1994) Plant lists of the Scenic Rim, south-east Queensland. Society for Growing Australian Plants (Qld Region), Fortitude Valley, Qld.  114 pp.  ISBN 0724257640.

Contains 25 local lists for this species-rich area of vascular plants, mosses, algae and lichens. Gives recognised names (some now out of date), distributions within Qld and beyond, and brief but useful notes on the ecological communities and botanical significance of each locale.

 

Nelder VJ (1992) Vascular plants of western Queensland. Queensland Department of

Environment and Heritage, Brisbane. (Queensland Botany Bulletin no. 11)  171pp.  ISBN 0724249508.

Checklist of plants of Western Queensland with a floristic summary, descriptions of known vegetation groups and useful appendices. Dated.

 

 

 

Queensland: Handbooks with State-wide scope

 

Clifford HT & Ludlow G (1978) Keys to the families and genera of Queensland flowering plants. 2nd edn. University of Queensland Press, St Lucia.  202 pp.  ISBN 0702212253.

Not for the casual user and now very dated; requires some acquaintance with keys and terminology, but may still have residual value in some families in the absence of  a State flora.

 

Williams KAW (1984-1999) Native plants of Queensland. KAW Williams, North Ipswich, Qld.  (4 vols. & index)

  • 1, 3rd edn (1984): 288 pp. ISBN 09595507008;
  • 2 (1984): 303 pp. ISBN 0959557016;
  • vol 3 (1987): 319 pp. ISBN 0959557024;
  • 4 (1999): 398 pp. ISBN 1875401792;
  • General index & supplement vol. 1-4: 56 pp. ISBN 18754 01826.

Short descriptions and colour photos of a wide range of species, although not at all comprehensive. No identification keys. Text information is sadly brief and inconsistent. Internally, each volume is independently alphabetical by species, with some doubling up across volumes, so the full set and supplement  is needed. For many years this was the only easy source of images for many species in the north and inland, and was a useful adjunct to the Flora of SE Qld, but it is now superseded for most of the State.

 

 

Queensland – south-east

 

Clifford HT & Specht, RL (1979) The vegetation of North Stradbroke Island, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia.  141 pp. ISBN 0702212679.

Primarily a field techniques guide for the amateur plant ecologist or student, but includes an identification section. Tables of critical features (for foliage, growth form and flower colour) provide a guide to many genera; these are followed by bracketed keys to many species.

 

Galbraith J (1977) A field guide to the wild flowers of south-east Australia. Collins, Sydney.  450 pp.  ISBN 2192462.

Now very dated and of purely historical interest. Very brief descriptions of a large range of native species from the temperate south-east, including SE Queensland and Tasmania. 48 pp. of colour photos show examples of many genera. Simple key system to family and genus level only.

 

Harrold A (1994) Wildflowers of the Noosa-Cooloola area : an introduction to the trees and wildflowers of the wallum. Noosa Parks Association Inc., Noosa Heads, Qld. 224 pp.  ISBN 0646107232.

Very brief descriptions with poor line drawings, but nevertheless useful for the area if nothing more recent available.

 

Haslam S. (2011). Noosa’s Native Plants (3rd edition): Noosa Biosphere Reserve, The Sunshine Coast, Cooloola and Fraser Island : with information about fungi, lichens, mossees, liverworts and a bird list. Noosa Integrated Catchment Association Inc. (PO Box 172, Tewantin Qld 4565). 392 pp.  ISBN 0646443178.

Covers c. 500 native species, organised by habitat type, and short sections on some weeds, about 55 fungi and some cryptogams (mosses, liverworts and lichens) of the area. Brief descriptions and notes, with variable-quality colour photos.

 

Hauser PJ (1992) Fragments of green : an identification field guide for rainforest plants of the greater Brisbane region. Rainforest Conservation Society Inc., Bardon, Qld.  381 pp.  ISBN 0958989117.

Native trees and shrubs of rainforest and former rainforest areas from Beaudesert north to Caboolture and west to Fassifern and Lake Wivenhoe. Simple keys to groups using leaf and growth form features, and species descriptions with good line drawings.

 

Leiper G et al. (2017) Mangroves to mountains.. A field guide to the native plants of south-east Queensland. Society for Growing Australian Plants (Queensland Region) Inc., Logan River Branch.  576 pp.ISBN 9780648047308 (p/bk), 9780648047315 (h/bk).

A good regional guide, covering 2,450 species arranged by habitat. Very brief descriptive info, fair to good colour photos. RECOMMENDED.

This second edition supersedes the Revised single volume edition of [Leiper et al. (2008), 544 pp., ISBN 9780646488462, which covered 2,200 species], and the original two-volume edition, q.v.under Society for Growing Australian Plants (Qld Region) – Logan River Branch (2002, 2005), below).

 

Lester NC (2000) Woodlands to weeds : Tara Shire and west to Thomby Range, NC Lester, Glen Morgan, Qld. 399 pp.  ISBN 1876245255.

An interesting local identification guide, grouping species by a mixture of major groups (acacias, etc) and flower colour, with tabulated information on descriptive characters and habitat. Includes fair-quality line-drawings and not-very-satisfactory photocopies of specimens and photographs.

 

MacRae IC (1996) Wildflowers of Bribie Island. Bribie Island Environmental Protection Association, Inc., Bribie Island, Qld.  88 pp.  ISBN 0646271741.

284 species of shrubs, trees, and herbs, grouped initially by flower colour; numerous colour photos plus line drawings.

 

McDonald B, et al. (1995) The flora of Girraween and Bald Rock National Parks.  Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.  100 pp.  ISBN 072426356X.

Short account of the physical environment, floristics, and botanical history of this area of the SE Qld Granite Belt, followed by short descriptions of a selection of c. 140 species, with line drawings and a few colour photos. A checklist of all vascular plants of the two parks forms an appendix.

 

Noosa Integrated Catchment Association Inc. (ongoing) Noosa’s native plants website.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE: http://www.noosanativeplants.com.au/articles/happening-now/

A great local resource, covering more than 1,300 species, each with a fact sheet; the descriptive information is minimal, but the image galleries are good to excellent in quality (click on a low-res thumbnail to activate).  The site allows search on scientific or common names, or you can browse the entire list (click ‘Find a plant’ then ‘Search” without entering any search term). Or call up a species-list for any one of a large number of sites within the area – each species on the locality list links back to its fact sheet.

 

Podberscek M (1991) Field guide to rainforest trees, shrubs, and climbers of Fraser Island, using vegetative characters. Queensland Department of Primary Industry, Brisbane.  136 pp.  ISBN 0724253688.

Provides easy keys, with glossaries, using mainly leaf characters; these are followed by descriptions and black and white illustrations of leaves for each species.

 

Podberscek M (1993) Field guide to the eucalypts of the Gympie, Imbil and Maryborough forestry districts. Queensland Department of Primary Industry, Brisbane.  114 pp.  ISBN 072425367X.

Keys and descriptions to 39 species of the area; each description is illustrated with poor quality (but generally adequate) black and white collaged photos. Unfortunately excludes Angophora.

 

Queensland Museum (M. Ryan, ed.) (2003) Wild plants of Greater Brisbane. Queensland Museum: Brisbane.

Covers more than 500 species (mostly common), arranged by habitat type, with short plain-English dscriptions and 1100 colour photos. Supplementary sections cover some environmental weed species, and native and exotic street trees.

 

Davie P et al. (2011) Wild Guide to Moreton Bay and Adjacent Coasts. Second Edition. Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 443 pp. ISBN 9780980753387.

An excellent guide to the animal life of the bay area, with a couple of dozen entries (brief descriptions, notes, and fair-only colour photos) for a selection of marine algae and dune, saltmarsh and mangrove plants.

 

Rotherham ER et al. (eds) (1975)  Flowers and plants of New South Wales and southern Queensland.  Reed, Sydney.  191 pp.  ISBN 0589071718.

Colour plates of a limited selection of native species, organized by habitat. Now very dated.

 

Society for Growing Australian Plants (Qld Region) – Logan River Branch (2002, 2005)

  • Mangroves to mountains: a field guide to the native plants of the Logan – Albert Rivers catchment. Copyright Publishing Co., Brisbane. 384 pp. ISBN 1875401954.
  • Mangroves to mountains, volume 2 – a field guide to the native plants of south-east Queensland. 2005. Logan River Branch SGAP (Qld Region) Inc., Broiwns Plains, Qld. 416 pp. ISBN 0646450891.

Field guide to about 900 vascular plant species, mostly arranged  by habitat type, with fair to good quality colour photos and very short descriptions; no keys.  Now superseded by the revised one-volume edition of Lieper et al. (2008) and the even better Second edition of Leiper et al. (2017), see above.

 

Stanley TD & Ross EM (1983-1989) Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane.  (3 vols.)

vol 1 (1983): 545 pp.  ISBN 0724217606;  vol 2 (c.1986): 623 pp.  ISBN 0724223444;  vol 3 (1989): 532 pp.  ISBN 0724225234.  ISBN (set): 0724221271.

Covers the flowering plants and gymnosperms only, organised by the Melchior/Engler system, and now very dated. Vol. 1 has introduction, glossary and a key to families (still useful) and half the dicots; vol. 2 remaining dicots; vol. 3 monocots and gymnosperms.Botanical descriptions and friendly keys, with line illustrations for a few species only. 

ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTS (PDFs): Supplements to volume 1 (2003), volume 2 (2002), and volume 3 (2005), all by LW Jessup, were produced in print, but in fairly ephemeral form. To date (Aug. 2015) only the Supplements to vols 1 and 2 have been located in on-line form, as free PDFs (entitled Flora of south-eastern Queensland Volume [x]: changes to names or status of taxa):

http://www.saveourwaterwaysnow.com.au/_dbase_upl/namechanges.pdf  and

http://www.saveourwaterwaysnow.com.au/_dbase_upl/namechanges2.pdf

 

Stephens K & Sharp D (2009) The flora of North Stradbroke Island. Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane, Qld. 439 pp. ISBN 9781920928155.

Covers most or all of the 599 native species of the island, and a selection of the weeds. Organised by family, with simple keys down to species level, a good glossary of terms, and good descriptions with fair-quality colour photos.

 

Watsford  P (ed.) (2006)  Plants of the forest floor: a guide to small native plants of subtropical eastern Australia. Nullum Publications (PO Box 1152, Murwillumbah NSW 2484). 115 pp plus CD-ROM. ISBN 0975682318. [This edition was available as PDF for free download from http://www.sgapqld.org.au/publications/watsfordelliott.pdf , but this site not operational at April 2019 and noalternate site yet located].

Spiral bound A5 field guide to about 90 species of mostly herbaceous plants of the understorey, covering an area from Bundaberg to Coffs Harbour. Very brief diagnostic and other notes, fair quality line-and-colour illustrations, plus a CD-ROM with about 150 colour photos.

Not seen:  2008 edition (or reprint?), also with CD-ROM (publ. Dynamic Digital Print: Tweed Heads, NSW).

 

Woodall P & Woodall L (2005) Common wildflowers of Girraween and Bald Rock National Parks. Taita Publishers (PO Box 436, Moorooka, Qld 4105). 40 pp. ISBN 0975682407.

Covers about 130 species, with good colour photos and very brief descriptive notes.

 

 

 

Queensland – other areas

 

Australian Tropical Herbarium & CSIRO Plant Industry (2010) Australian tropical rain forest plants. Edition 6, version 6.1.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: INTERACTIVE, ON-LINE: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/rfk/

This information system is an updated version of one developed by Hyland et al. (2003), but much expanded and on up-to-date software (Lucid 3.5 system and Matrix Java Applet – check site for system requirements). The key system is easy to use on-line after short familiarisation, even with limited plant material (many characters are available) and leads to very comprehensive species fact-sheets with descriptions and notes supported by good colour images of adult plants, colour scans of juveniles, and many leaf  x-ray images to show venation patterns. The system covers the seed-plants (trees, shrubs, vines, herbs, grasses, sedges, palms, pandans and epiphytes) of the rainforests of northern Australia – the area of coverage is north of a line from Broome to Townsville, but it is also useful further south in Queensland (eventual extension to fully cover the area between Townsville and Rockhampton is anticipated; south from Rocky is covered by Harden et al. (2015).  RECOMMENDED

Earlier versions issued in various formats but now out of ‘print’ (e.g. 2 CD-ROMS + booklet from CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic ISBN-10: 9643068724; ISBN-13: 9780643068728) have significantly less coverage in area and growth forms, but may still be useful.

For the separate on-line interactive ‘Orchid module of this current product, see Jones et al. (2010) Australian tropical rainforest orchids, in the Orchid section of this bibliography, or go direct to http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/orfk/index.html

 

Alexander R [2005?] A field guide to plants of the Channel Country, western Queensland. Channel Landcare Group Inc., Currumundi Qld. 324 pp. ISBN 0646449842.

228 species organised by growth form (trees, grasses, sedges and forbs). Brief plain-language descriptions and notes, with variable-quality colour photos. Handy guide for a poorly documented region.

 

Anderson E (2016) Plants of Central Queensland: identification and uses of native and introduced species. [2nd edition].  CSIRO Publishing, Clayton south, Vic. 566 pp.  ISBN 9781486302253 (hbk); 9781486302260 (epdf); 9781486302277 (epub).

Supersedes Anderson (1993) of similar title, with the addition of a further 285 species (for a total of 525 native and naturalised). No keys, but the species are ordered into major groups (some taxonomic e.g. ferns, others by growth form. Brief plain-language descriptions with short notes on distribution, habitat, status as weeds or toxic, and uses. All species have one or more colour photos but the quality is variable.

 

Anderson E (1993) Plants of Central Queensland : their identification and uses. Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane.  272 pp.  ISBN 0724239901.

Some 240 common or conspicuous species, not all native, are described, with notes on habitat, distribution, and economic significance. Good to excellent colour photos. Supoerseded by Anderson (2016).

 

Beasley J (2006, emended reprint 2008, 2011) Plants of tropical North Queensland – the compact guide. Footloose Publications. 192 pp. ISBN 1876617136. [Current distributor: Reinhild Tracey: email reinhild@tpg.com.au; postal: 12 Pine St, Yungaburra Qld 4884).

Useful field guide to 485 species of the Cairns region (Cardwell to Cooktown and inland to Chillagoe). Species are arranged by habitat type, but simple keys based on flower and fruit colour and features of bark and leaf, help narrow down your search. Informative plain-english text and fair quality small photos. Unfortunately does not show family affiliation of the included species.

 

Beasley J (2009) Plants of Cape York – the compact guide. Self-publ. by author [at 2013, distributor is Reinhild Tracey: email reinhild@tpg.com.au; postal: 12 Pine St, Yungaburra Qld 4884). 240 pp.  ISBN 9780980686302.

Useful field guide to over 600 species of the Cape York region (north from Cooktown). Species are arranged by habitat type, but simple keys based on flower and fruit colour and features of bark and leaf, help narrow down your search. Informative plain-english text and fair quality small photos; families are indicated in index.

 

Calvert G (2010) The Burdekin Delta tree guide. Lower Burdekin Landcare Association Inc. (PO Box 1280, Ayr Qld 4807). 158 pp. ISBN 9780646526225.

Sturdy ringbound guide to 68 local native tree species, with good plain-language descriptions and notes and fair to good quality colour photos.

 

Calvert G & Liessmann L (2014) Wetland plants of the Townsville-Burdekin flood plain. Lower Burdekin Landcare Association Inc., Ayr, Qld.  142 pp. ISBN 9780992580704.

Spiral-bound tough guide, covering 58 aquatic native and introduced water plants commonly found within the region with descriptions,good colour images, and notes on habitat, impacts and uses; plus identification tips for an additional 65 water plants. Free PDF download from http://www.lowerburdekinlandcare.org.au/files/Wetland%20Plants%20of%20the%20Townsville-%20Burdekin%20Floodplain%20WEB.pdf

 

Cohen M & Cooper J (2010) 101 plants of the Wet Tropics. Wild About The Tropics (PO Box 311, Edgehill, Cairns Qld 4870). 39 pp. ISBN 0977543922.

Fair quality photos and very brief notes on some of the more common ferns, gymnosperms, and native flowering plants, with sections also on mangroves and non-native plants.

 

Eddie C (2007) Field Guide to trees and shrubs of eastern Queensland oil and gas fields.

Santos Ltd, Adelaide, SA. 322 pp.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE – ON-LINE: free PDF: https://www.santos.com/library/Santos_Qld_Field_Guide.pdf

Covers close to 150 species from the oil and gas belt (west of the Great Divide from roughly Emerald south to Moonie and the NSW border). Fair-only colour photos (most unfortunately small and of low resolution), with plain-English short descriptive notes.

 

Greig D  (2002)  A photographic guide to wildflowers of outback Australia.  New Holland Publishers, Frenchs Forest, NSW. 144 pp. ISBN 1864368055.

A handy but very general guide to 250 species of a huge area of the inland, in long pocket format. Small fair-quality colour photos, with very brief plain-English descriptions and notes.

 

Hando R (1988) Going bush with Chinchilla Nats – twenty years of field observations of the Chinchilla Field Naturalists Club. Chinchilla Field Naturalists’ Club Inc., Chinchilla, Qld. 176 pp. ISBN 0731609506.

Excellent field guide to the flora and fauna. The plant section, authored by Val Hando, covers 881 species of flowering plants for the western Darling Downs, Barakula-Gurulmundi district, and the south-west Burnett district, with very brief but good descriptions and a fair smattering of line drawings (no keys). Separate sections cover the fungi and ferns. The taxonomy and information base are now somewhat dated but this remains a valuable book for the area.

 

Hando V  (1999?) Wildflowers of southeast inland Queensland. Val Hando, Chinchilla, Qld. 80 pp. ISBN 0959473424.

Covers a good selection of about 260 species for the western Darling Downs area, bounded by St George, Milmerran, Monto and Carnarvon National Park. Very short plain-English descriptions and notes, with sketch-quality line drawings.

 

Henry DR et al. (1995) Pasture plants of southern inland Queensland. Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane. [Information series QI95016].  261 pp.  ISBN 0724259406.

Introductory short sections of land types, poisonous plants, and declared weeds, followed by an easy key to common pasture plants. Covers grasses, sedges, rushes, and dicot herbs, with some small soft shrubs where relevant. Plain English descriptions and excellent colour plates.

 

Jackes BR (1985) A guide to the plants of the Burra Range. 2nd edn. Department of Botany, James Cook University, Townsville.  64 pp.  ISBN 0864431910.

Useful field guide to an important centre of diversity on the crest of the Great Divide SW of Townsville, and useful for the somewhat wider White Mountains National Park. Covers mainly dicots, with only very common or conspicuous monocots. Brief descriptions and fair to poor quality black and white illustrations (many are photocopies of specimens), but more than adequate as a field guide.

 

Jackes BR & Cairns A (2001) Plants of the Tropics: rainforest to heath: an identification guide. James Cook University, Townsville.  226 pp.  ISBN 0864436858.

Identification guide to the plants of rainforests and associated communities of the Cairns and Townsville areas, and to heath communities of the Herberton–Stannary Hills and Paluma Range–Hidden Valley areas. Includes keys to the vascular plants, ferns, and bryophytes, with thumbnail drawings of diagnostic features for the first two groups. Useful “how to identify” sections.

 

Jackes BR (2003) Plants of Magnetic Island. School of Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld.  164 pp. ISBN 0864437056.

Covers a large proportion of the native and introduced species occurring on the island, but excludes mast grasses and sedges, some of the more inconspicuous herbs, and some less common plants; however a total vascular plant checklist is included at the end. Fully keyed to species level. Heavily illustrated in black-and-white with a mix of line-drawings and low-quality specimen scans (although these do capture at least some of the diagnostic characters).

 

Jessop J (ed.) (1981) Flora of Central Australia. Reed, Sydney.  537 pp.  ISBN 0589502262.

Now dated for some (many?) groups, but still of use in the south-west quarter of Queensland.

 

Lester N (2008) Woodland to weeds – Southern Queensland Brigalow Belt. Second edition. CopyRight Publishing Company, Brisbane. 536 pp. ISBN 9781876344207.

Paperback field guide to plants of the region, from Goondiwindi to Emerald. Covers about 1,200 species, in a complex but intuitively user-friendly format that approximates a keying system, using plant group, flower-colour, and a limited range of other characters. Brief plain-English descriptions, habitat notes, fair-to-good colour photos, and supplementary line drawings.

 

Melzer R & Plumb J (2011) Plants of Capricornia. “1st edn reprint with updates”. Capricorn Conservation Council, Rockhampton. 588 pp. ISBN (pbk?) 9780646561226; hbk ISBN-10: 0646561227, ISBN-13: 9780646476063.

Covers 600+ species of ferns, conifers, cycads, and flowering plants, with brief descriptions and notes, and colour photos. Keys are provided for those genera for which more than one species occurs in the area. Area of coverage is coastal Central Queensland, centring on Yeppoon-Mackay. The 2007 first issue still circulates.

 

Milson J (1995) Plant identification in the arid zone. Department of Primary Industries,Brisbane. [Information series QI94035]. 104 pp.  ISBN 072426647X.

Covers 220 species of trees, shrubs, herbs, and grasses across the semi-arid of western Queensland, with brief descriptions and fair-quality colour photos.

 

Milson J (2000) Pasture plants of north-west Queensland. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane. (Information series QI00015)  348 pp.  ISBN 0734500823

Covers the area north-west from Winton and Hughenden, for a wide range of native and introduced grasses, forbs, herbs, shrubs, and sedges; brief descriptions, excellent colour photos.

 

Milson J (2000) Trees and shrubs of north-west Queensland. Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane. (Information series QI00016)  330 pp.  ISBN 0734500831.

Covers the area north-west from Winton and Hughenden, for a wide range of native and introduced shrubs and trees, with brief descriptions and excellent colour photos.

 

Moore  P (2005) A guide to plants of inland Australia. Reed New Holland. 504 pp. ISBN 9781876334864.

A very useful field guide to about 900 species, albeit over a very large swathe of the continent, with short descriptions and fair-quality colour photos.  Applicable to parts of western Qld. Introductory sections outline the evolutionary history of the region and broad vegetation types.

 

Pearson S & Pearson A (1989) Plants of central Queensland. Society for Growing Australian Plants NSW Ltd, Sydney.  416 pp.  ISBN 0909830363.

A very useful guide to the area, dealing mainly with shrubby species, all native. High quality colour photos of each plant, with unnecessarily short descriptions of a couple of lines. A simple key based on flower colour and petal number is provided.

 

Sankowsky G (2003-ongoing) Australian tropical plants. Version 4.1 Zodiac Publications, P.O. Box 210, Tolga Qld 4882; http://www.rainforestmagic.com.au/atp.html. No ISBN.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE on DVD: limited interactivity: allows simple and complex SQL searches; suitable only for Windows systems on stand-alone PCs.

A work in progress, this currently (Aug. 2015) covers 2050 species of Australian native tropical plants, including trees, shrubs, vines, ferns and orchids, with a strong Queensland (and rainforest) bias. Over 1200 colour photo images and information on 524 species. The system is image-based (12,000+ good colour photos) with a large set of search criteria to narrow identification possibilities, and a capacity to generate data-sheets (including images) for each species.  An update facility is available as the system develops.

 

Scarth-Johnson V (2000) National treasures: flowering plants of Cooktown and northern Australia. Vera Scarth-Johnson Gallery Association Inc., Cooktown, Qld.  184 pp.   ISBN 0646397265.

Useful guide to a poorly documented area; covers mainly florally conspicuous species, arranged by habitat and growth form. Very brief notes with good quality colour paintings. No keys.

 

Skull S (1995) Plants of the melaleuca woodlands. James Cook University, Townsville, Qld.  71 pp.  ISBN 0864435312.

Basic but useful guide to 27 common species of the Melaleuca viridiflora -dominated communities of eastern and northern Queensland. Short descriptions and fair quality line drawings; no keys.

 

Society for Growing Australian Plants Inc. (Rockhampton) (2003)  Native plants for the Fitzroy Basin. Society for Growing Australian Plants Inc. (Rockhampton Branch). 108 pp.  ISBN 097501210X.

Close to 500 species are listed in the index; many are covered by short, very clear plain-English descriptions, and tabulated information on habitats, soil types and uses. Contains a few fair-quality line drawings only; not comprehensive nor an identification guide, but a useful checklist.

 

Townsend K (1997) Field guide to plants of the dry tropics. Society for Growing Australian Plants, Townsville, Qld.  192 pp.  ISBN 0909830541

Pocket-sized quality field guide to 165 species, arranged by growth form. Brief descriptions, good colour photos; no keys.

 

Weakley L (1987) The Society for Growing Australian Plants guide to growing plants in the dry tropics. Society for Growing Australian Plants, Townsville Branch, Townsville, Qld.  245 pp.  ISBN 0909830347

Not an identification guide, but a listing of some 400 native species of horticultural interest, with very brief descriptions and some line drawings.

 

Wheaton T (ed.) (1994) Plants of the northern Australian rangelands. Northern Territory Department of Lands, Housing, and Local Government, Darwin.  143 pp.  ISBN 0724516352

Covers 140 toxic, weed, and fodder species, mainly forbs, grasses, and herbs, with some shrubs. Plain-language descriptions and good colour photos.

 

Wiltshire D & Schmidt M (1997) Field guide to the common plants of the Cooper Basin, South Australia and Queensland. 3rd edn. Santos Ltd, Adelaide.  124 pp.  ISBN 1875568042.

Covers 50-odd species, with brief descriptions and notes, and fair-only colour photos and line sketches.

 

 

 

 

 

 

NEW SOUTH WALES (including Australian Capital Territory)

 

Note that depending on dates of publication, Flora of Australia volumes may provide more up to date treatments than some State-specific printed resources. See http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/

 

This section lists general cross-family resources, mainly of the ‘plants-of-area’ sort. For additional resources, see other sections of this bibliography (e.g. Weeds, Threatened Species, particular plant groups or habitats, Algae, Fungi).

 

NSW Herbaria with Identification services

 

National Herbarium of New South Wales (at Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney)

https://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/science, phone 02 9231 8111

Scope:  The Plant Identification and Botanical Information Service provides advice on native and naturalised plants (including weeds), and cultivated and horticultural plants (to species level, not cultivars); also information on poisonous and allergenic properties. Note that services may be restricted during the period 2019-2021,as the herbarium is moving location.

This service does not supply:

  • Medical treatment advice for poisonous plants or fungi (call Poisons Information Centre 13 11 26).
  • Identification from plant roots or wood – but can provide referrals.
  • Fungi identification (contact NSW Plant Pathology Herbarium  – see below).
  • Plant pests and diseases (contact RBG Plant Disease Diagnostic Unit, 02 9231 8076 or email pddu@rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au)
  • Horticultural advice.

Charges: Free identifications for up to six (6) specimens per year for members of the public, after which commercial rates apply (for details see web address above).

Submission of specimens and photos: See website for a list of books with guidance on specimen preparation (or ring for advice).  Please do not ask for plant identification by description over the phone. Identification from digital photos may be possible – email images to botanical.is@rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au with as much collection information as is available.
Over-the-counter submission of specimens: weekdays 9.30am to 1.00 pm.

Police inquiries over the counter 11 am-midday Mon-Fri. 

For urgent ID inquiries (e.g. poisonous plants), phone 02 9231 8111 Mon-Fri working hours.

For mail inquiries use address below, flagged to ‘Botanical Information Service’.

Location (street and postal): National Herbarium of NSW, Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust, Mrs Macquaries Road, Sydney 2000

Self-help:  The Public Reference Collection of pressed plant reference specimens (covering wild plants of NSW including weeds) is open 9 am–4 pm Mon–Fri (no charge). A microscope and reference books are available, and some assistance can be provided.

 

 

Australian National Herbarium (Canberra)

(part of the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, Canberra)

www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/plant-enquiry-service/index.html
Scope: Plant, lichen and and macrofungal identifications and advice on most botanical subjects. No service for algae.

Charges: Free for members of the public and for not-for-profit organisations (limit of 10 specimens per batch). Undergraduate students needing identifications as part of assignments must have tried using the Public Reference Herbarium first (see below); postgraduate students should discuss needs well ahead of time via the Herbarium Curator. Fees apply for commercial inquiries or batches of more than 10 specimens (reductions may apply for good collections useful for the herbarium and for collaborative projects)..

Submission of specimens: See website for guidance on collecting and preparing specimens and on data requirements.  Specimens should be submitted at the Visitor Centre at the Australian National Botanic Gardens, Black Mountain (9.30-4.30 every day except Christmas Day). For mail submission please ensure specimens are prepared and air-dried (see website guidelines). Postal address: Plant Enquiry Service, Australian National Botanic Gardens, GPO Box 1777, CANBERRA, ACT, 2601.

Self-help: A Public Reference Herbarium is located in the Botanical Resource Centre at the Australian National Botanic Gardens, Clunies Ross St, Acton. This is a reference set of pressed specimens covering native and naturalised plants of the A.C.T., and the NSW Southern Tablelands, Australian Alps and South Coast. It is open for use by the public 9:30am – 4:30pm daily (but please book via the Visitor Centre on 02 6250 9450). First -time users must have an introductory session from one of the Facilitators. The Resource Centre has a microscope, botanical books, and a computer with interactive identification tools and links to the Internet.

 

 

NCW Beadle Herbarium (at University of New England, Armidale)

https://www.une.edu.au/info-for/visitors/collections/ncw-beadle-herbarium

Scope: Native and naturalised plants especially of the northern NSW region; identification (to some level) of cultivated plants may also be possible.

Charges: Plant identifications are free to members of the public from the local region for non-commercial purposes (limit of six specimens per batch). This service is generally not available to students if the specimens are a part of compulsory course work. Commercial inquiries (organidsations or individuals) incur a fee. Non-profit organisations may be charged at reduced rates.

Submission of specimens and photos: see guidelines at above site.

Contact officer: Mr Matthew Gray; ph 02 6773 2875

 

 

Janet Cosh Herbarium (at University of Wollongong)

https://smah.uow.edu.au/seals/collections/resources/UOW062807.html

Scope: Vascular plants of the southern half of the Sydney Basin and the Illawarra, South Coast and Southern Tableland regions of NSW. The Cosh Herbarium focusses mainly on support for the university research community and students, and does not have a general public identification service as such, but is open to discussing access by potential users of the collection on a case by case basis (note that opening hours are limited). It also from time to time runs plant ID workshops and undertakes consultancies that include plant identification.

Specimens currently in the collection can be viewed online – website under revision 2019, so contact JCH for link.

Location and contact: Janet Cosh Herbarium,  University of Wollongong: School of Biological Sciences (Room 35.G08), Northfields Avenue, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522. Phone 02 4221 4340, email patnagle3@gmail.com

 

 

New South Wales Plant Pathology Herbarium

http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/aboutus/services/collections/herbarium

(part of NSW Dept of Primary Industries: Orange Agricultural Institute)

Scope: Identification of macrofungi and of plant disease pathogens including microfungi.

Submission of samples: For guidelines on submitting samples, and for inquiry submission form, see website. Mark parcels “Attention: Sample Submissions”.

Location and contact:

Delivery address: Orange Agricultural Institute, 1447 Forest Rd, Orange NSW 2800.

Postal: Orange Agricultural Institute, Locked Bag 6006, Orange NSW 2800.

Email: orangeai.phds@industry.nsw.gov.au.  Phone: 02 6391 3985.

 

 

NSW & ACT Censuses

 

The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust (1999 –  ongoing)  New South Wales Flora On-line. Part of PlantNET – The Plant Information Network System of The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Sydney, Australia. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE, partially interactive: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au

This plant information system allows generations of census-type lists from its ‘name search’ function (either whole-state or by botanical division), from the ‘spatial search’ function (various public tenures, LGA and old CMA boundaries, and IBRA regions, and rectilinear polygons), and (whole State only, bare name list) from the ‘Index search’ function.

RECOMMENDED.

 

Lepschi BJ, Mallinson DJ, & Cargill DC (editors) (2012) Census of the Vascular Plants,

Hornworts, Liverworts and Slime Moulds of the Australian Capital Territory. Version 3.0, 8th June 2012. Australian National Herbarium, Canberra.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE, periodic updates: Free download (various views and sections available) from: http://www.cpbr.gov.au/cpbr/ACT-census-2012/index.html  

RECOMMENDED.

 

 

 

Flora of NSW – on-line and hardcopy

 

Harden GJ (ed) (1992-2002)  Flora of New South Wales. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.  (4 vols.)

Vol. 1, revised edn. (2000): 678 pp., ISBN 0868407046 – contains Ferns and allies, Gymnosperms, and dicotyledons up to Amygdalaceae.

Vol. 2, Rev. edn. (2002): 690 pp., ISBN 0868406090 – covers Proteaceae to Fabaceae, including many of the major dicotyledon families including Rutaceae, Mimosaceae, Myrtaceae.

Vol. 3 (1992): 717 pp., ISBN 0868401722 – contains the  remainder of the dicotyledons including Asteraceae. 

Vol. 4 (1993): 775 pp., ISBN 0868401889) – covers the monocotyledons.

Covers all native and naturalised-introduced species.  Dichotomous keys, short descriptions, and  line illustrations showing distinguishing characters for each species.Many treatments are now becoming dated, and this printed Flora is now effectively superseded by the up-to-date electronic version NSW Flora On-Line at http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/ (see next).

 

The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust (1999 –  ongoing)  New South Wales Flora On-line. Part of PlantNET – The Plant Information Network system of The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE, INTERACTIVE: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au

The system is based on the printed Flora of New South Wales (Harden 1992-2002), but updated, and with steadily more and better images being added. Static dichotomous keys (modified from the printed Flora), plus descriptions in standard Flora format, plus line illustrations, and with a range of search parameters. The most up-to-date and comprehensive resource for the vascular plants of NSW (native and naturalised).  RECOMMENDED.

 

 

New South Wales field guides and handbooks

– general and multi-regional

 

Auld B (2013) A traveller’s flora: a guide to familiar plants, along roadsides, in fields and forgotten places. Samara. 180 pp. ISBN 9780646901169.

Brief descriptions and illustrations of a about 150 common and conspicuous plants of south-eastern Australia (crops, weeds, roadside plants and trees).  .

 

Costermans L (2009) Native Trees and Shrubs of South-Eastern Australia – covering areas of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. New Holland. 432 pp. ISBN-13:  9781877069703.

A popular book but very dated, nowhere near comprehensive, and not for serious identification. The text and most captions date from the 1983 edition, with an appendix noting taxonomic and nomenclatural changes to 2009.

 

Galbraith J (1977) A field guide to the wild flowers of south-east Australia. Collins, Sydney.  450 pp.  ISBN 2192462.

Now very dated and of purely historical interest. Very brief descriptions of a large range of native species from the temperate south-east, including SE Queensland and Tasmania. 48 pp. of colour photos show examples of many genera. Simple key system to family and genus level only.

 

Greig D (1990) Colour guide to the wildflowers of eastern Australia. Angus & Robertson, North Ryde NSW.  184 pp. ISBN 0207168547.

A general-interest handbook, only covering about 300 species with plain-English non-diagnostic descriptions and fair-only colour photos.

 

Greig D (2002, 2012 reprint) A photographic guide to wildflowers of south-eastern Australia. New Holland. 144 pp.  ISBN-10 1864368063, ISBN-13 9781864368062.

Octavo (large pocket-sized) paperback general-interest guide covering about 250 species, with plain-language notes on distinctive features, line drawings, and colour photos.

 

Hamilton MA, Winkler MA & Downey PO (2008) Native plant species at risk from Bitou Bush invasion: a field guide for New South Wales. Dept of Environment & Climate Change (NSW), Hurstville. 196 pp. ISBN 9781741224467.

A good compact guide to nearly 160 species (and 24 ecological communities) of the near-coastal area of NSW; plain-language descriptions and fair- to good quality colour photos.

 

Rose H, Rose C, & Rose T (2011) Legumes and herbs of coastal NSW. NSW Dept of Industry & Investment. (Enquiries: Tocal College, Paterson NSW 2141; ph 02 4939 8888, email info@tocal.com). 196 pp. ISBN 9781742560656.

Ringbound field guide covering almost 180 common non-grass herbaceous species, including some ferns, sedges, rushes, pea-flowers and a wide variety of other families, arranged by flower colour. Short descriptive and other notes and fair quality colour photos.

 

Rotherham ER et al. (eds) (1975) Flowers and plants of New South Wales and southern Queensland. Reed, Sydney.  191 pp.  ISBN 0589071718.

Very dated, with colour plates of a limited selection of native species, organized by habitat. Of historical interest only.

 

Spencer, R (ed.) (1995-2002) Horticultural flora of south-eastern Australia: the identification of garden and cultivated plants. University of NSW Press, Sydney. ISBN 0868401676 (set).

vol. 1 (1995): Ferns, conifers and their allies. 464 pp.,  ISBN 0868402060.

vol. 2 (1997) Flowering plants. Dicotyledons part 1.  606 pp., ISBN 0868403032.

vol. 3 (2002) Flowering plants. Dicotyledons part 2.  619 pp., ISBN-10 0868406600, ISBN-13 978-0868406602.

vol. 4 (2002) Flowering plants. Dicotyledons part 3. 534 pp., ISBN 0868406848.

Guide to the native and exotic plants in these groups likely to be found in horticultural situations, with general and cultivation notes.  Can be very useful where the horticultural versus native/naturalised situation of a plant is not clear.

 

 

 

New South Wales – Sydney region & Blue Mountains

 

Baker M, Corringham J & Dark J (1986) Native plants of the Sydney region. Three Sisters Productions Pty Ltd [PO Box 104, Winmalee NSW 2777]. 152 pp. ISBN 0959020322.

Covers 300 species of mostly common native vascular plants, in the region from Broken Bay to the Hacking River and inland to the foot of the Blue Mountains. Species are grouped by habitat; below that level identification is by use of the fair-quality colour photos (i.e. no keys). The brief text for each species includes some useful descriptive detail.

 

Baker M & Corringham R (1995) Native plants of the Blue Mountains. Three Sisters, Winmalee, NSW.  112 pp.  ISBN 0646184962.

A combined edition of two earlier titles dealing with the Upper and Lower Blue Mountains. Short descriptions and colour photos of a good range of mostly common species.

 

Benson D & McDougall L (1991) Rare bushland plants of western Sydney. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.  60 pp.  ISBN 0724243100

Short descriptions and conservation assessments of the declared rare species of the area, together with descriptions of the main plant communities, and a list of occurrences in the main suburban areas. Line illustrations and some colour photos.

 

Carolin RC & Tindale MD (1993) Flora of the Sydney region. 4th edn. Reed, Chatswood, NSW.  840 pp.  ISBN0730104001.

Now badly dated, but as a single volume applicable to the whole Sydney basin this (and earlier ‘Beadle, Evans & Carolin’ editions) was the standard guide for a generation. Now fully superseded by the fifth edition (Pellow et al., 2009, q.v.). Identification keys and brief diagnostic descriptions for all native and naturalized plants of the region; very few illustrations.

 

Edmonds T & Webb J (1998) Sydney flora – a beginner’s guide to native plants. 2nd edition. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW. 156 pp.  ISBN 0949324779.

In its day a useful beginner’s guide, with simple keys to common genera (and in some of these to a selection of species), with occasional line drawings. Now superseded by several other works.

 

Elliot R (1988) Common native plants of south Sydney, Royal National Park & Heathcote National Park. Pioneer Design Studio, Lilydale, Vic.  64 pp.  ISBN 0909674329

One of a series of pocket booklets, covering only a very few common or conspicuous species.

 

Elliot R (1988) Common native plants of north Sydney, Hornsby Plateau. Pioneer Design Studio, Lilydale, Vic.  64 pp.  ISBN 0909674310

One of a series of pocket booklets, covering only a very few common or conspicuous species.

 

Elliot R (1988) Common native plants of the Blue Mountains. Pioneer Design Studio, Lilydale, Vic.  64 pp.  ISBN 0909674337.

One of a series of pocket booklets, covering only a very few common or conspicuous species.

 

Fairley A (2001) Wildflowers of Sydney and adjoining areas Blooming Books, Melbourne Vic. 278 pp.  ISBN 187647338X.

Backpack-sized guide to 268 common or conspicuous native plant species; brief descriptive, distributional and habitat information, with fair to very good colour photos.

 

Fairley A (2004) Seldom seen: rare plants of greater Sydney. Reed New Holland, Frenchs Forest, NSW. 208 pp. ISBN 1876334991.

210 species with good notes, short plain-English descriptions, selected rough localities, and fair to good colour photos. Conservation status is given according to the old ROTAP system, and the 2004 NSW (and where relevant, Commonwealth) legislative lists.

 

Fairley A & Moore P (2000) Native plants of the Sydney district : an identification guide. 2nd edn.  Kangaroo Press, East Roseville, NSW.  432 pp.  ISBN 0731810317.

Excellent identification guide (photos and descriptions, with a few keys only); not fully comprehensive for indigenous species, but includes a large percentage. Light enough to be carried in the field. Now somewhat dated, superseded by Fairley & Moore (2010).

 

Fairley A & Moore P (2010) Native plants of the Sydney region, from Newcastle to Nowra and west to the Dividing Range.  Jacana Books (Allen & Unwin). 614 pp. ISBN 9781741755718.

Completely revised and updated edition, covering nearly 1400 native species, with brief descriptions and notes and good to excellent colour photos. No keys.  RECOMMENDED

 

Gullan P (undated, ongoing)  Wild plants of Sydney and surrounds.  Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh East, Vic. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, on-line and USB; limited interactivity. (http://www.viridans.com.au).   (Available in Web-delivered and USB-Flash Drive versions).

An information system covering  about 4,000 vascular plant species, each with plain-English descriptions, notes, maps at 1:250,000 scale with overlay options, and one or more colour images for most species. [Not evaluated in detail for this bibliography. See website for details.]

 

Howell J, McDougall L & Benson, D (1995) Riverside plants of the Hawkesbury-Nepean.  Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.  62 pp.  ISBN 0731071719.

A useful booklet guide to 93 common or conspicuous species of this river system. No keys; brief descriptions and ecological notes with variable quality colour photos.

 

James T (2013) Native flora of Cumberland Plain Woodland – an identification guide. Published by the author (order via t.james@optusnet.com.au . 124 pp. ISBN 9780646905907.

Sturdy wire-bound field guide. Covers 200 species, organised by major groups and  with simple well-illustrated keys. Good plain-English descriptions and notes, good diagnostic photos.

 

King RJ (ED.) (2013) Field guide to Royal National Park. The Linnean Society of New South Wales, Kingsford NSW. 170 pp. ISBN 9780959053524.

A good rucksack field guide, with complete plant lists for the Park and about 300 species illustrated with good colour photos. (similar coverage of vertebrate animals, and a selection of invertebrates).

 

Lollback S, Drewe H, Coveny R, & Durie K (2014) Native plants, Hassans Walls Reserve, Lithgow.  Lithgow & District Community Nursery (PO Box 492, Lithgow NSW 2790, email suzaloll2@bigpond.com). 161 pp. ISBN 9780646923093.

Excellent local field guide with wider applicability along the western fall of the Blue Mountains. ages with colour photos.  Ringwire-bound A5, field-hardy, covering 359 native species of flowering plants, 20 ferns, 18 bryophytes, and 41 lichens and fungi. Very good colour photos with some insets of diagnostic parts.  Minimal text. Lists of a further 97 locally native and 92 introiduced plants are appended.

 

Pellow BJ, Henwood MJ, & Carolin RC (2009) Flora of the Sydney region. Fifth edition.  Sydney University Press. 700 pp. ISBN 9781920899301.

A fully revised edition of this venerable Sydney flora, covering 3000 native and naturalised species from Nowra to the Hunter and west to the Great Divide. Descriptive information is embedded in a key format throughout. No illustrations.

 

Robinson L (2003)  Field guide to the native plants of Sydney. Rev. 3rd edn. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW.  448 pp.  ISBN-10: 0731812115; ISBN-13: 9780731812110.

A popular, easily carried and user-friendly guide, even though lacking colour photos. Arranged into dicotyledons (major and minor families), monocots, primitives, and then “separate groups” such as climbers, mistletoes, rainforest species, aquatics. A simple illustrated key gets the user to one of these sections; there are no further keys. Each of the 1,370 species is briefly described, and illustrated with a basic but intuitively useful line drawing.

 

Sutherland Group APS [date?] Coastal Plants of the Royal National Park. Australian Plants Society, Sutherland Group, NSW. (https://austplants.com.au/Sutherland/)

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: CD-ROM, interactive: Covers more than 300 species of plants in the coastal part of the Park (many of which occur elsewhere in the region). Text descriptions, more than 1300 colour photos, and a search capability on habitat, growth form, various chacteristics: five ‘flower’ characters (although some of these actually apply to inflorescences), three fruit characters, leaf and some bark characteristics, and (for ferns) frond and sori characters.

 

 

 

 

 

New South Wales – south-eastern (non-Sydney) & A.C.T.

 

Bell S, Rockley C, & Llewellyn A (2019) Flora of the Hunter region – Endemic trees and larger shrubs. CSIRO Publishing, Clayton South, Vic. 128 pp. ISBN 9781486311026 (hbk), 9781486311033 (epdf), 9781486311040 (epub).

Volume one of a projected two.  This volume covers 54 species endemic to the area. High quality scientific colour illustrations, with sound detailed botanical descriptions and notes. Not a primary identification tool but a valuable resource for confirmation of ID and for more information.

 

Burbidge NT & Gray M (1970) Flora of the Australian Capital Territory. Australian National University Press, Canberra.  447 pp.  ISBN 0708100732.

Very dated and long out of print. Keys, descriptions, limited illustration.

 

Codd P, Payne B & Woolcock CE (1998) The plant life of Kosciuszko. Kangaroo Press, East Roseville, NSW.  192 pp.  ISBN 0864178778.

Outlines of the main ecological communities and floral associations, colour photos and line drawings of many plants, plus visual semi-keys.

 

Cosgrove M (2014)  Photographic guide to native plants of the Australian Capital Territory. Meadow Argus, Canberra [web http://meadow-argus.com/; email meadow.argus.books@gmail.com]. 360 pp. ISBN 9780994183408.

Excellent field guide to 327 taxa (out of a total 1070 native taxa for the ACT). Covers most of the common and conspicuous wildflowers and flowering shrubs, plus eucalypts. Most are dicots – only a few monocot groups are included (orchids and a few other taxa in the order Asaparagales sens. lat.).  Each has brief plain-english descriptive and other notes, and a suite of at least three very good colour photos that include key diagnostic features; these are carefully cross-referenced in the text. The book has a number of innovative features, including a chart guide to plant families by flower colour, 100%-scale bars for leaf width and flower and fruit size, and a ‘bubble graph’ showing frequency of records by altitude. RECOMMENDED

 

Costin AB, Gray M, Totterdell C & Wimbush D (2000) Kosciuszko alpine flora. 2nd edn.  CSIRO, Collingwood, Vic.  392 pp.  ISBN 0643065299.

Near-comprehensive, a bit dated, covering 212 species of flowering plants and ferns that occur above the tree-line. It includes keys, detailed species descriptions and brief notes,  and colour photos . Introductory chapters cover alpine environments, human impacts, and plant communities.  There is also a tabulated list of plant names with data on growth form, habitat and distribution codes. See also entry for the field edition (same authors, 2000). RECOMMENDED

 

Costin AB, Gray M, Totterdell C & Wimbush D (2000) Kosciuszko alpine flora. Field edn.  CSIRO, Collingwood, Vic.  233 pp.  ISBN 0643065210.

An abridged version of the main edition (same authors and date), intended for quick-reference field use and omitting the keys and detailed species descriptions. The 212 species of flowering plants and ferns that occur above the tree-line are covered by very abbreviated tabular information and a good selection of excellent colour photos. Introductory chapters cover alpine environments, human impacts, and plant communities.  RECOMMENDED

 

De Jong N (2016) Heathlands – walks and wildflowers of the Ulladulla headlands.  [Self-publ. by author]. ISBN 9780646955728.

Includes profiles (very brief text, with fair to good quality colour photos) of about 320 local plants.  A separate chart-format section gives flower colour and flowering period (together these can function as a key of sorts), with habitats and reserves of occurrence.

 

 

Eddy D, Mallinson D, Rehwinkel R & Sharp S (1998) Grassland flora : a field guide for the southern tablelands (NSW & ACT). Environment ACT, Canberra.  156 pp.  ISBN 0731360214.

Excellent field guide to about 130 common species of native and introduced grasses and herbs. Short descriptions; good notes and colour photos. No keys.

 

Falconer R. (2004)  Down by the riverside – a field and management guide to native plants in and about the rivers of the Goulburn district, NSW. Goulburn Field Naturalists Society, Goulburn, NSW. 175 pp. ISBN 0959686126.

Good plain-English descriptions and colour photos of 80-odd native riparian and near-riparian species of the area.

 

Fraser I & McJannett M (1993) Wildflowers of the bush capital : a field guide to Canberra Nature Park. Vertego Press, Canberra.  97 pp.  ISBN 0646157116.

Very easy to use field guide with a watercolour of each plant described; includes only a limited number of plants of the Canberra area.

 

Fraser I & McJannett M (1998) Wildflowers of the snow country : a field guide to the Australian Alps. Vertego Press, Canberra.  170 pp.  ISBN 0646352601.

Plain-English field guide to common and conspicuous herb and shrub species, organised by dominant flower colour, with short descriptions and quite good colour paintings. Covers many of the “wildflower” species of the Victorian and NSW alpine and subalpine regions, but not comprehensive and long outdated..

 

Friends of the Aranda Bushland (2007) Our patch : field guide to the flora of the Australian capital region, as photographed in the Aranda Bushland. 2nd ed. Friends of the Aranda Bushland Inc., Jamison, ACT.  83 pp.  ISBN 064634692X.

Useful local guide to most common and conspicuous species.

 

Fuller F (2011) Wollongong’s native trees. 3rd edn. Big Bean Books, Wollongong NSW. 440 pp. ISBN 9780959471137.

Covers most tree species of the area (Stanwell Park south to southern shore of Lake Illawarra,

and inland to the top of the escarpment).  Good colour photos (leaves, flowers, usually fruits, and often bark and habit), local distribution maps, and descriptive notes. Supersedes both the 2nd (1982) edition, and Fuller & Mills (1985).

 

Fuller L & Badans R (1982) Wollongong’s native trees. 2nd edn. Weston & Co., Kiama, NSW.  388 pp.  ISBN 0959471111.

Covers many tree species of the area, with b/w photos and line illustrations, and detailed local distribution maps. Largely superseded by Fuller & Mills (1985) below, and both in turn by Fuller (2011) above.

 

Fuller L & Mills K (1985) Native trees of central Illawarra, including the Kiama and Shellharbour municipalities. Weston and Co., Kiama, NSW. 186 pp. ISBN 095947112X.

Good but now very dated local guide, illustrated, with maps.

 

Hardwick RJ (2001) Nature’s larder : a field guide to the native food plants of the NSW south coast. Homosapien Books, Jerrabomberra, NSW.  136 pp.  ISBN 1876863129.

Primarily a handbook of traditional and continuing uses of native plants of the area, but enough species are included to give this some value as an identification guide for general interest. Fair quality colour photos with brief descriptive notes, and usage information.

 

Kahn L & Heard B (1998) Pasture plants of the slopes and tablelands of NSW : a field guide to the recognition and attributes of 70 plants. Dept of Land and Water Conservation, Bathurst, NSW.  164 pp.  ISBN 073130327X.

A ring-bound and field-tough guide to 70 species, with dot-point descriptive notes and brief information on fodder value and habitat, and good colour photocopies of fresh specimens.

 

Lunt I,  Barlow T & Ross J (1998)  Plains wandering : exploring the grassy plains of south-eastern Australia. Victorian National Parks Association, & Trust for Nature (Vic.), Melbourne.  152 pp.  ISBN 1875100121.

Excellent pocket-sized guide to these once extensive ecological systems. Covers 280 taxa with very good colour photos, scientific and common names, and vestigial text. Introductory sections profiling the main grassland regions of the south-east. RECOMMENDED

 

McCann IR (2001)  The Alps in flower. 4th edn. Victorian National Parks Association, East Melbourne.  64 pp.  ISBN 1875100237.

Pictorial identification guide to about 180 species, mostly shrubs and herbs. Good quality colour photos, with common and scientific names and a single line of descriptive and distribution information.

 

Marriott N & Marriott J (1998) Grassland plants of south-eastern Australia : a field guide to native grassland and grassy woodland plants of south eastern Australia. Bloomings Books, Hawthorn, Vic.  183 pp.  ISBN 1876473002.

Short text and notes, and fair quality colour photographs, of 170 grassland species, mostly common or widespread.

 

Mills K & Jakeman J (2010) Native trees of the NSW South Coast: Berry – Kangaroo Valley – Nowra – Ulladulla – Batemans Bay. Envirobook, Canterbury NSW (ph +61 (2) 9787 1955). 246 pp. ISBN 9780858812307.

Brief descriptions, with basic line illustrations and a few colour photos, of 169 native tree species.

 

Mills K (ongoing) Budawangia Newsletter – Plant identification advice (Illwarra region – extension service).

Free service by expert Illawarra region ecologicalconsultant; send a photograph, scan or

specimen of the plant to kevinmillskma@gmail.com

 

Molonglo Catchment Group [undated, 2010] Glove Box Guide: Waterplants of the A.C.T. region. Molonglo Cathcment Group. 24 pp. ISBN 9780980319774.

Pocket-sized booklet covering about 35 native and introduced aquatic plants, with brief descriptive and habitat notes, including weediness status, and variable quality colour photos.

 

National Parks Association of the A.C.T. (2007) Field guide to the native trees of the ACT. 2nd edn.  National Parks Association of the A.C.T., Inc. 98 pp. ISBN 9780646447476.

Covers 62 tree species native to the ACT. Simple descriptions and notes, with good colour photos and line drawings.

 

Paget A (2003)  Plants Of the ACT. Version 1.0. Wildwood Flora, Upper Lansdowne, NSW.

(2 CD-ROMs). No ISBN.

A pilot project, unfortunately now lapsed. More than 4000 colour photo images of vascular plants of the ACT, and short plain-English descriptive and habitat information, although this first version has a number of errors (and no keys).  The CDs contain a series of PowerPoint files, one for each family; an Excel spreadsheet gives some help in placing genera to families.

 

Pryor LD & Banks JCG (2001) Trees and shrubs in Canberra. 2nd edn. Little Hills Press, Seven Hills, NSW.  319 pp.  ISBN 1863151842.

Guide to native and exotic vegetation in Canberra, including street, park and garden plants. Good colour illustrations. Includes a street-by-street guide and information on notable and commemorative trees.

 

Sharp S, Rehwinkel R, Mallinson D & Eddy D (2015) Woodland flora: a field guide for the Southern Tablelands (NSW & ACT). Friends of Grasslands (PO Box 440, Jamison Centre ACT 2614). 285 pp. ISBN 9780994495808.

A sturdy, spiral-bound field guide, this covers plants of woodland habitats in the area from Boorowa-Goulburn south to the Victorian border and west to Tumut. Not comprehensive, but 444 species of native and introduced herbs, shrubs and trees (and a selection of grasses and sedges) are described and illustrated with a minimum of technical language, and fair to good colour photos.  This is a companion volume to Eddy et al. (1998, 2011) Grassland Flora.

 

Whan, Kiri [undated] Plants of the Shoalhaven region. presOz Computer Services (PO Box 6, Milton NSW 2538).  ELECTRONIC INTERACTIVE, ON-LINE or CD-ROM: www.presoz.com.au/posr). On-line free access, or CD-ROM for purchase.

Billed as a FilemakerPro stand-alone database of 2295 plants, developed in the R programming language, with search options including a “picture pathway” and output including factsheets with images in different formats. On-line functionality somewhat clunky at test (24 June 2015), and the descriptive and other information shows the signs (erratic spelling, syntax, and punctuation) of having been automatically reassembled from a database after sometimes uncertain parsing and without final editing.  Illustrations are thumbnail paintings or hand-coloured line drawings of variable quality.

 

Wood B & Wood D (1998-2000)  Flowers of the south coast and ranges of New South Wales – a field guide. Vols 1—3. Wood’s Books, Canberra. [43 Mayo St, Weetangera ACT 2614].

Vol. I (1998): 118 pp.,  ISBN 095857720X. Vol. II (1999): 120 pp., ISBN 0958577218; Vol. III (2000): 121 pp., ISBN 0958577226.

Useful pocket-sized guides for a poorly-documented area. Each volume covers a mixture of families and genera; species are organised mainly by primary flower colour. Consists almost entirely of fair to excellent quality colour photos, with scientific and common names (many of the latter made up), and the barest of extra information.

 

Wood D & Wood B (2005) Flowers of the ACT & region – a field guide. Woods Books, Canberra. [43 Mayo St, Weetangera ACT 2614]. 177 pp. ISBN 0958577242.

Covers over 460 species (mostly native), organised by easy-to use features of growth form and flower colour that approximate a key to manageable-sized groups. Good colour photos, minimal text.

 

 

New South Wales – other regions

 

Bayes E & Cook D (undated, post-2010) Seasonal herbaceous wetlands – identification and management handbook. Goulburn Broken Catchment and North East Catchment Management

Authorities (Vic.). 102 pp. [ISBN lacking]. Free PDF via https://www.necma.vic.gov.au/News-Events/News/ArtMID/431/ArticleID/182/Seasonal-Herbaceous-Wetlands-Handbook

66 species, mostly grasses, rushes and herbs, many not often featured in other works, with fair-quality colour images and very brief plain-English descriptive notes

 

Beadle NCW (1972-1987) Students flora of north eastern New South Wales. University of New England, Armidale, NSW.  (6 vols.) [No ISBN]

Part I (2nd edn) Pteridophytes;  Part II  Gymnosperms, and first 46 families of (dicot) Angiosperms; Part III-V  dicot angiosperms; Part VI monocot angiosperms.

Once a key resource for this part of NSW but now extremely dated. Similar in style and approach to Carolin & Tindale’s Flora of the Sydney Region.

 

Brooke G & McGarva L (1998) The glove box guide to plants of the NSW rangelands. NSW Agriculture, Orange, NSW.  157 pp.  ISBN 0731314875.

Based on Cunningham et al. (1992 – q.v.) and cross-referenced to that book for more detail, this is a ring-bound, tough field guide covering 127 species that are common or important for pastoral management, organised by life-form. Brief descriptions and notes, fair to good colour photos.

 

Carr D & Curtis D (2000) Plants in your pants II : a pocket guide to the trees and shrubs of the north west plains of NSW. Greening Australia (North West), Armidale, NSW.  252 pp.  ISBN 1875345582.

Pocket-sized field guide to more than 200 species of trees, and shrubs that grow to more than 2 metres tall.. Short plain-English descriptions and basic line drawings.

 

Carr D (2010) field guide to the trees and tall shrubs of the North-West Slopes. 2nd edition.  Greening Australia, Armidale, NSW.  89 pp. [ISBN lacking?]

Spiral bound guide to the eucalypts of the area and a variety of shrubs. Simple diagrammatic key to groups. Brief plain-language descriptions with diagnostic line illustrations and some colour photos.

 

Charles Sturt University Virtual Herbarium

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE – some interactivity: http://www.csu.edu.au/herbarium/

Scope: Native and naturalised plants of the South West Slopes and the Riverina of NSW. On-line, you can view specimen label information for all specimens in the Herbarium, and (not for all taxa) scanned images of the specimens including some diagnostic detail.

Specialty areas (all available but under development) are:

  • the On-Line Mistletoe Guide, with specimen sheet information and high quality images for all the mistletoe species in the CSU Herbarium, plus articles describing recent research and general information on mistletoes
  • the On-Line Grasses Guide, with specimen sheet information and high quality images for all the grass species in the CSU Herbarium.
  • the South West Slopes Revegetation Guide, with vegetation profiles for all land systems in the region (from the Murray River, west to Balranald, east to Narrandera and north through Carrathool Shire), plus illustrated descriptions of over 300 species of trees, shrubs and ground covers. \

 

Cotton Catchment Communities CRC (2009) Common plants of grazing pastures on the Lower Namoi floodplain.  The Cotton Catchment Communities Cooperative Research Centre. 131 pp.  ISBN 9780977513017.

Covers 104 species of grassy, herbaceous and shrubby plants. Very brief plant-language descriptions, plus notes and fair-quality colour photos; no keys.

 

Cunningham GM, Mulham WE, Milthorpe PL, Leigh JH (2011) Plants of Western New South Wales. CSIRO Publishing. 766 pp. ISBN-13: 9780643103634. 

A reprint of the very popular 1992 edition (Inkata Press, ISBN-10: 0409306878), with a one page appendix giving website addresses of various herbaria where the reader can more or less easily access update information. As most of the text dates from the 1981 original, it is now quite dated, but is enduringly popular for the region. Covers 2027 taxa, with 1500 colour photos.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: also available as an e-book.

 

Greig D  (2002)  A photographic guide to wildflowers of outback Australia.  New Holland Publishers, Frenchs Forest, NSW. 144 pp. ISBN 1864368055.

A handy but very general guide to 250 species of a huge area of the inland, in long pocket format. Small fair-quality colour photos, with very brief plain-English descriptions and notes.

 

Jessop J (ed.) (1981) Flora of Central Australia. Reed, Sydney.  537 pp.  ISBN 0589502262.

Now dated for some (many?) groups, but still of some use in the area of NSW west of the Darling River. Comprehensive keys and botanical descriptions, few line illustrations.

 

Kahn L & Heard B (1998) Pasture plants of the slopes and tablelands of NSW : a field guide to the recognition and attributes of 70 plants. Dept of Land and Water Conservation, Bathurst, NSW.  164 pp.  ISBN 073130327X.

A ring-bound and field-tough guide to 70 species, with dot-point descriptive notes and brief information on fodder value and habitat, and good colour photocopies of fresh specimens.

 

Kemp B (2004)  Wildflowers of the north coast of New South Wales. Reed New Holland, Frenchs Forest. 176 pp. ISBN 1877069051.

Short descriptions and notes for over 300 species (mostly native, with a relatively short section on weeds), with good colour photos. Organised by six habitat types and then growth form within each. Far from comprehensive, but a good general handbook for the coast north from Newcastle.

 

Kent K, Earl G, Mullins B, Lunt I & Webster R (2002) Native vegetation guide for the Riverina: notes for land managers on its management and revegetation. Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW.  413 pp.  ISBN 1864671173.

Primarily a guide for revegetation projects and remnant conservation, but with over 320 species covered by brief plain-English descriptions and notes (and many with fair-quality line drawings), it also serves as an identification guide for an area with few others. Useful lists of species occurring in sub-regions and habitats help to narrow the hunt.

 

Lacey L (2008) Native Plants of the NW Slopes of NSW Traprock Country. 2nd edition. Self-publ.by Lyn Lacey and Beatrix Lindlar. 252 pp. [ISBN for this edition not determined]. Covers 118 species of the traprock (metamorphosed metasediment) country on the north-west margin of the New England granite belt. Species are organised mostly by flower colour, with excellent colour photos and short notes.

 

Leiper G et al. (2008) Mangroves to mountains. Revised [single volume] edition. A field guide to the native plants of south-east Queensland. Society for Growing Australian Plants (Queensland region) Inc., Logan River Branch. 544 pp. ISBN 9780646488462.

A regional guide with limited applicability south of the border (use with other NSW-specific resources). 2,200 species arranged by habitat. Very brief descriptive info, good colour photos. Original edition was in two Parts (2002, 2005).

 

Leiper G et al. (2017) Mangroves to mountains.. A field guide to the native plants of south-east Queensland. Society for Growing Australian Plants (Queensland Region) Inc., Logan River Branch.  576 pp.ISBN 9780648047308 (p/bk), 9780648047315 (h/bk).

A regional guide with limited applicability south of the border (use with other NSW-specific resources). 2,450 species arranged by habitat. Very brief descriptive info, good colour photos.

This second edition supersedes the Revised single volume edition [Leiper et al.2008, 544 pp., ISBN 9780646488462], and the original two-Part edition by Society for Growing Australian Plants (Qld Region) – Logan River Branch (2002, 2005).

 

[Local Land Services Riverina; author/s and date uncertain] Ute guide to common shrubs of the Hay Plain. Spiral-bound field guide. [NOT SEEN, not on Web – can readers help with details?]

 

Milthorpe PL & Wynne MJ (eds.) (2001) The Glove Box Guide to growth, flowering and seeding of plants of the NSW Rangelands. NSW Agriculture, Orange NSW. 138 pp. ISBN 0734712871.

Spiral bound field guide. [NOT SEEN]

 

Milthorpe PL & Wynne MJ (eds) (2004) Useful trees and shrubs for Central West NSW: the glove box guide. NSW Dept. of Primary Industries. 82pp. ISBN 0734716044.

Spiral bound. Fair quality multiple photos for each of 75 species of trees and shrubs, including eucalypts, acacias, and other native and introduced species; brief plain-English notes. Geared to the selection of species for planting, but may aid identification.  [NOT SEEN]

 

Moore  P (2005) A Guide to plants of inland Australia. Reed New Holland. 504 pp. ISBN 9781876334864.

A very useful field guide to about 900 species, albeit over a very large swathe of the continent, with some applicability in the western half of the State. Short descriptions and fair-quality colour photos.  Introductory sections on the evolutionary history of the region and vegetation types.

 

Monument Hill Parklands Association Inc., & Albury/Wodonga Field Naturalists Club Inc.  [1997]  Along the bush tracks — Albury-Wodonga.  Albury-Wodonga Regional Parklands. 40 pp.  ISBN 0646320475.

Booklet-sized guide to fauna and flora (53 common plant species) of the area, with short descriptions and fair-quality colour photos.

 

O’Halloran A (2011) Wildflowers of the Pilliga. Bilby Blooms (www.bilbyblooms.com.au). 31 pp. ISBN 9780987161802.

A purely pictorial guide (fair quality photos, nearly all of flowers only) to 144 native species.

 

Porteners MF & Ashby EM (1996) Plants of Pooncarie and the Willandra Lakes. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.  36 pp.  ISBN 0731091817.

Brief descriptions of 47 common and conspicuous species of this western NSW area, with line drawings of diagnostic features and a few colour photos, plus a more comprehensive species list.

 

Rose H (2009) Glove box guide to plants of the Gwydir Wetlands & Macquarie Marshes. NSW Dept. of Primary Industries. 101 pp. ISBN 9780734719690.

Covers some of the more common wetland species. [NOT SEEN]

 

Steenbeeke G  (1999-)  The plants directory – volume 1: north-eastern New South Wales.  Orkology Kreations, web http://members.dodo.com.au/~orkology/, email orkology@gmail.com. CD-ROM.  ISBN lacking.  ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: CD-ROM

An early semi-interactive information system covering native and exotic vascular plant species in NSW from the Hunter Valley to the Queensland border and west to the Warrumbungle Ranges and the Newell Highway (Moree), with short descriptions and  notes on 4900 species and subspecies, and photographs for about 1500. As at 2015 has not recently been updated, and in many respects is superseded by the online PlantNet (http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/), but potentially still useful for the region.

 

Sydes M, Butterfield L,& Rutledge S (2003) A practical guide to revegetation in the mid Lachlan region. Greening Australia NSW (Central West). Dept. of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources. 135 pp. ISBN 0734754027.

[NOT SEEN]

 

Taylor R & Lewer S (2012) Plants.  In: Taylor et al. (2012) Plants and animals of the Dubbo region. Dubbo Field Naturalist and Conservation Society Inc. (www.dubbofieldnats.org.au, postal: PO Box 1171, Dubbo NSW 2830). 222 pp. ISBN 9780646570099.

The ‘Plants’ chapter covers about 100 local mostly common species, with another 15 or so rare and threatened taxa, with very brief descriptive and ecological notes, and variable quality colour photos.

 

Tremont R (2015) Native wildflowers of the New England Tablelands of New South wales: a simple illustrated key. 2nd edn. [Self-publ. by author: Ruth Tremont, PO Box 1902, Armidale NSW 2350].  119 pp. ISBN 97,80646921303.

This spiral-bound regional key covers mainly herbaceous dicots, but with a few mostly smaller shrubs as well. The simple, plain-English key choices guide you to and identification – in many (most?) cases the key takes you as far as a genus (e.g. Billardiera, Leptospermum) with a single exemplar illustrated.

 

Walker K, Burrows G & McMahon L (2001) Bidgee bush: an identification guide to common native plant species of the south western slopes of New South Wales. Greening Australia-South West Slopes, Wagga Wagga, NSW.  131pp.  ISBN 1875345612.

Ring-bound guide to over 160 species, focussed on the Wagga area but useful further afield. Short descriptions and notes (incl. propagation and horticulture), with fair-quality colour photos.

 

Watsford P (ed.) (2006) Plants of the forest floor: a guide to small native plants of subtropical eastern Australia. Nullum Publications (PO Box 1152, Murwillumbah NSW 2484). 115 pp plus CD-ROM. ISBN 0975682318.

Spiral bound A5 field guide to about 90 species of mostly herbaceous plants of the understorey, covering roughly Bundaberg to Coffs Harbour. Very brief diagnostic and other notes, fair quality line-and-colour illustrations, plus a CD-ROM with about 150 colour photos.

[Not seen:  2008 edition (or reprint?), also with CD-ROM, publ. by Dynamic Digital Print: Tweed Heads, NSW.]

 

Weare PL (1984) A collection of botanical illustrations. Kevin Weldon and Associates, McMahons Point, NSW.  263 pp.  ISBN 0949708097.

Title is given on cover as ‘A collection of Australian wildflower illustrations’. Large format. Good quality watercolours of a selection of plants of the hills of south-western NSW; some of the nomenclature is now out of date. Scarcely any text information.

 

Williams JB (1985) Plants of the coastal heath, scrub and swamp-heath communities in northern New South Wales. University of New England, Armidale, NSW.  20 pp.  ISBN 0858344602.

A checklist of plants of the habitats indicated, covering the NSW North Coast north from the Macleay River. Gives scientific and common names, and habitat (by community type). No identification details. Now very dated.

 

Wood B (2013) Plants and fungi of south western New South Wales. Australian Wildlife Conservancy / Lucid. ELECTRONIC ON-LINE, INTERACTIVE, free access: http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/scotia/

Interactive key running on the user-friendly Lucid system. Covers the southwest corner of NSW (approximately south of Menindee and west of Balranald). About 1100 species are included, illustrated with about 3000 colour images. The key uses a suite of simple macroscopic characters. Download of a Java update may be required. [Not fully evaluated]

 

 

 

 

VICTORIA

 

Note that depending on dates of publication, Flora of Australia volumes may provide more up to date treatments than some State-specific printed resources. See http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/

 

This section lists general cross-family resources, mainly of the ‘plants-of-area’ sort. For additional resources, see other sections of this bibliography (e.g. Weeds, Threatened Species, particular plant groups or habitats, Algae, Fungi).

 

Victorian Herbaria with identification services

 

National Herbarium of Victoria – Identification & Information Service.

http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/science/herbarium-and-resources/identification-and-information-services ; phone (03) 9252 2315; email:  rbg@rbg.vic.gov.au

Scope:  The Identification and Information Service provides identifications for native, naturalised and cultivated plants, and macrofungi. The Service does not provide:

– medical advice (ring Poisons Information Centre ph 13 11 26 immediately);

– advice on the edibility of fungi

– identifications based on images alone

– identifications of agricultural plant cultivars

– identifications of wood and timber

– identifications of plant pests and diseases

– identifications of tree roots

– advice on weed control and herbicide use

– general gardening advice

 – commercial recommendations such as in relation to plant availability, or advice on legal issues relating to plants.

Hygiene: Please ensure that all specimens submitted for identification, either by mail or in person, are in sealed plastic bags. See website for protocols.

Charges: Charges apply – see website for details; reduction or waivers may be possible. 

Submission of fungal specimens: by prior contact with the Duty Mycologist (phone Garens Reception 03 9252 2300).

Submission of plant specimens: See the website or phone for details of batch size limits, specimen preparation, information needed, opening times, and location.

 

Victoria – Census

 

Walsh NG & Stajsic V (2007) A Census of the vascular plants of Victoria. Eighth edition. Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. 307 pp. ISBN 9780975136287.

PDF available by request at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239744886_A_Census_of_the_Vascular_Plants_of_Victoria. Out of date and now superseded by the interactive census capability at http://data.rbg.vic.gov.au/vicflora/ (see next).

 

 

Victoria –On-line plant ID and information (whole State)

 

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne (2014-continuing) VicFlora: Flora of Victoria.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE: https://vicflora.rbg.vic.gov.au/

VicFlora is a developing and definitive online resource to the plants (and eventually fungi and algae) of Victoria.

As at June 2015, content exists for 4100 species of vascular plants of Victoria (flowering plants, gymnosperms and ferns), digitised from the printed four-volume Flora of Victoria (see below). Over 1000 new species recognised for Victoria since the printed volumes will be progressively added (2015-8). Keys for identification are also being updated, and images will be added to profile pages over time. A Census function is also available. Species profiles provide a brief description, distribution, general notes, and (where applicable) legislative and Advisory List conservation status.

 

PRINTED FLORA

 

Foreman DB & Walsh NG (eds.) (1993) Flora of Victoria. Vol. 1.  Inkata Press, Melbourne.

320 pp. ISBN 0909605769. 

First of four authoritative volumes covering all vascular plants of Victoria. Vol. 1 has introductory essays only, on prehistory, geology and geomorphology, climate, botanical exploration history, floristic regions, soils, Aboriginal uses of plants, effects of fire, rare plants, and the exotic (naturalised) flora. See under Walsh & Entwisle (1994-1999) below for vols 2-4.

 

Walsh NG & Entwisle, TJ (eds.) (1994-1999) Flora of Victoria, vols 2-4. Inkata Press, Melbourne.  ISBN set 0909605777.

These three volumes contain keys and descriptions for all native and naturalised vascular plants in the State (for vol. 1, introductory essays, see under Foreman & Walsh (1993) above. 

Vol. 2 Ferns and allied plants, conifers and monocots (1994): 946 pp.. ISBN 0409308498. 

Vol. 3 Dicots: Winteraceae to Myrtaceae (1996): [includes Acacia, Pea-flowers, Proteaceae]. 1093 pp.  ISBN 0409308528. 

Vol. 4 Dicotyledons: Cornaceae to Asteraceae (1999). Includes Lamiaceae, Rutaceae, 1088 pp. ISBN 0409308536. 

These authoritative volumes cover all vascular plants of Victoria at dates of publication and are RECOMMENDED with that proviso (but many species recognised since – see VicFlora entry above).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Victoria – field guides and handbooks – statewide

 

Corrick MG & Fuhrer BA (2000) Wildflowers of Victoria and adjoining areas. Blooming Books, Hawthorn, Vic.  246 pp.   ISBN 1876473142.

Excellent pictorial guide to over 800 native species, arranged by mix of habitats and regions. Very brief descriptive, distributional (but informative) and ecological information, with excellent colour photos. No keys.

 

Costermans LF (2006) Trees of Victoria and adjoining areas. 6th edn. Costermans Publishing (1/6 St Johns Ave, Frankston, Vic 3199). 164 pp.  ISBN 0959910549.

This and earlier editions are popular pocket-sized general-interest only guides; this edition covers over 250 species. No keys. Line illustrations plus photos of some features.

 

Costermans L   (2009) Native trees and shrubs of south-eastern Australia – covering areas of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. New Holland. 432 pp. ISBN-13:  9781877069703.

A popular book but very dated, nowhere near comprehensive, and not for serious identification. The text and most captions for the numerous colour images date from the 1983 edition, with an appendix noting taxonomic and nomenclatural changes to 2009.

 

Galbraith J (1977) Field guide to the wild flowers of south-east Australia. Collins, Sydney, NSW.  450 pp.  [I]SBN 2192462.

Very brief descriptions of a large range of native species from the temperate south-east, including SE Queensland and Tasmania. 48 pp. of colour photos show examples of many genera. Simple key system to family and genus level only. Now very dated and of purely historical interest.

 

Greig D (2002, 2012 reprint) A photographic guide to wildflowers of south-eastern Australia. New Holland. 144 pp.  ISBN-10 1864368063, ISBN-13 9781864368062.

Octavo (large pocket-sized) paperback field guide covering about 250 species, with plain-language notes on distinctive features, line drawings, and colour photos.

 

Gullan P (2003 – ongoing)  Viridans Flora and Fauna Information Systems. Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh East, Vic. (www.viridans.com.au).

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: pay to purchase: A series of products are available in both Web-delivered and USB-Flash Drive versions.

  • Wild plants of Victoria:  An information system with descriptive data and notes for 5,000 species of native and naturalised ferns, gymnosperms and flowering plants. Each has a plain English description, and most are represented by one or more colour photograph (18,000 images in total).  A mapping function (10-minute grid) allows the plotting of distributions in relation to other spatial variable (climatic and geographic), and an area search function allows species lists (based on whatever herbarium and survey records exist) for particular areas.  You can in effect create your own field guide for your own area.

Alternative versions, based on the same data sets but with differing functionalities and reporting formats, are available as separate products including:

  • Just-a-Minute Plants and animals of Victoria (distributions on a 1 minute geographic grid) and the
  • Victorian Flora and Fauna Databases.

See website for details.

 

Spencer, R (ed.) (1995-2002) Horticultural flora of south-eastern Australia: the identification of garden and cultivated plants . University of NSW Press, Sydney. (4 vols to date)  ISBN 0868401676 (set).

  • 1 (1995): Ferns, conifers and their allies. 464 pp., ISBN 0868402060.
  • 2 (1997) Flowering plants. Dicotyledons part 1. 606 pp., ISBN 0868403032.
  • 3 (2002) Flowering plants. Dicotyledons part 2. 619 pp., ISBN-10 0868406600, ISBN-13 978-0868406602.
  • 4 (2002) Flowering plants. Dicotyledons part 3. 534 pp., ISBN 0868406848.

Guide to the native and exotic plants in these groups likely to be found in horticultural situations, with general and cultivation notes.  Can be very useful where the horticultural versus native/naturalised situation of a plant is not clear.

 

Willis JH (1970-1972) A handbook to plants in Victoria. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Vic.

  • 1. Ferns, conifers and monocotyledons. 2nd edn. (1970) 481 pp. ISBN 0522839835.
  • 2. Dicotyledons. (1972) 832 pp. ISBN 052284037X.
  • Supplement by SJ Forbes & JH Ross. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Vic. (1988) 76 pp. ISBN 0522842941.

Contains keys and botanical descriptions, no illustrations. Indispensible in its day, and still a favourite with some users (partly because the volumes are small enough for field work), but now very dated and superseded.

 

 

Victoria – regional and local

 

Allen J et al. (2012) Plants of Melbourne’s western plains. A gardener’s guide to the original flora. 2nd edition. Australian Plants Society, Keilor Plains Group, Inc. 223 pp. ISBN 9780909830656.

Covers more than 200 species, good colour photos and brief notes, and sections on cultivation.

 

Bayes E & Cook D (undated, post-2010) Seasonal herbaceous wetlands – identification and management handbook. Goulburn Broken Catchment and North East Catchment Management

Authorities (Vic.). 102 pp. [ISBN lacking]. Free PDF via https://www.necma.vic.gov.au/News-Events/News/ArtMID/431/ArticleID/182/Seasonal-Herbaceous-Wetlands-Handbook

66 species, mostly grasses, rushes and herbs, many not often featured in other works, with fair-quality colour images and very brief plain-English descriptive notes

 

Beilby G, Shoebridge B, Carland F, Dennis C, & Jackson A (2006) Salt tolerant plants of the Western District RAMSAR lakes. Greening Australia (Victoria) / Australian Plants Society Colac Otway Group. 165 pp. ISBN 0980294002.

Covers 158 indigenous and introduced species, arranged alphabetically by scientific name. No keys. Fair-quality colour photos and short plain-English descriptions and habitat notes.

 

Best R & Francis D [c. 2008] Macedon Range Flora 1. A photographic guide to the flora of Barrm Birrm, Riddells Creek. Riddells Creek Landcare (PO Box 292, Riddells Creek. VIC 3431, or see www.riddellscreeklandcare.org.au/projects/macedon-range-flora-book). 56 pp. ISBN 9780646492520.

Covers 208 native plant species known from the Riddles Creek area (accounting for about 40% of the total for the Macedon range), well illustrated with colour photos.

 

Boyes G (2006) Local plants. A guide to the more common indigenous plant species found in the Mansfield district. Upper Goulburn Landcare Network. 107 pp. ISBN 0646464353.

Sturdy spiral-bound field guide to 104 local species (mostly of lower altitudes), with variable quality colour photos and short descriptions and notes.

 

Bull M & Stolfo G (2014) Flora of Melbourne. A guide to the indigenous plants of the greater Melbourne area. 4th edition. Hyland House. 608 pp. ISBN: 9781864471229

Covers 1360 species (a good proportion of the total for the area), with many line drawings and colour photos. The descriptions are fairly brief, but carefully constructed with good diagnostic information in mid-level terminology. No keys. Each species is coded for its occurrence across more than 220 sample sites around the greater Melbourne region. Very brief notes on traditional uses, habitat, and horticultural use. The standard Victorian Ecological Vegetation Classes (EVCs) of the region are outlined in some detail, with indications of their pre-settlement occurrence.

 

Calder M, Calder J & McCann I (2002) Victoria’s box-ironbark country: a field guide. 2nd edn. Victorian National Parks Association, Melbourne, Vic.  120 pp.  ISBN 18751000229.

Colour photos of over 200 species with very brief captions (scientific and common names, families, and notes); also has non-technical chapters on ecology and floristics. Much revised from the previous (1994) edition which was titled “The forgotten forests“.

 

City of Greater Bendigo & Bendigo Native Plant Group Inc. (2004) Indigenous plants of Bendigo – a gardeners guide to growing and protecting local plants. City of Greater Bendigo & Bendigo Native Plant Group Inc. 64 pp. No ISBN.

Mainly cultivation notes, but with very brief descriptions and variable-quality colour photos, for 124 local species.

 

Cleary J & Leamon E (1988) Wildflowers of Bendigo. Bendigo Field Naturalists Club, Bendigo, Vic.  58 pp.  ISBN 0958925925.

Brief profiles of bushland areas around Bendigo, then colour photos of common or conspicuous herb, shrub and some tree species. Scientific and common names plus very brief descriptions.

 

Corangamite CMA [undated] Grasslands and Grassy Woodlands of the VVP – Landholders Guide. Corangamite Catchment Management Authority, Colac, Vic. / Greening Australia. 23 pp.  ISBN lacking.

A very brief and general landcare guide to the Victorian Volcanic Plains, with small colour photos of 25 common native species and 14 naturalised exotics.

 

Curtis H & Curtis P (2008) Floodplain woodland plants of north east Victoria. Wangaratta Urban Landcare Group (PO Box 465, Wangaratta Vic. 3676). 110 pp. ISBN 9780646487427.

Sturdy spiral-bound field guide to about 130 native and introduced species, with colour thumbnail photos and very brief descriptions and notes on reproduction and management. Includes a useful section on ‘look-alikes’ for distinguishing natives from similar weed species, and sections on weed management.

 

Davis A & Kemp B (1984) Native plants of the Macedon Range — a field guide. Macedon Range Conservation Society.  81 pp.  ISBN 0959145001.

Short descriptions of species grouped by habitat; fair-quality colour photos. Now long out of print, but a supplementary table by Kemp with new scientific namres and a few new records for the area, up to 2012, is available at https://sites.google.com/site/macedonflora/references/davis.   Overall this book is partly superseded by Best & Francis (c. 2008), q.v.

 

Dunn I & Rennick S (1993) The Mornington Peninsula – a field guide to the flora, fauna, and walking tracks. 2nd edn. Southern Peninsula Tree Preservation Society, Dromana, Vic.  62 pp.  ISBN 0731681606.

Excellent colour photos and very brief text for a number of local species, mainly herbs and shrubs.

 

Edwards J, Reid J, White L & Webb M (1988) Mt Evelyn’s original garden – plants of the northern Dandenongs. Mt Evelyn Environmental Protection and Progress Association, Mt Evelyn, Vic.  68 pp.  ISBN 0731615646.

169 species of the Dandenong Ranges are briefly described, 120 of them with line drawings.

 

Elliot R (1984) A field guide to the Grampians flora. Algona Publications, Northcote, Vic.  144 pp.  ISBN 0909594201.

Brief descriptions and fair line drawings of about 400 species, plus a few colour photos. No keys as such, but a character-chart system aids identification.

 

Elliot R (1984)  Common native plants of ….  Pioneer Design Studio, Lilydale Vic.

Series of illustrated pocket sized general-interest booklets for various regions, including

  • Sherbrooke Forest and Dandenongs (1984) 64 pp. ISBN 0909674248
  • The Grampians (1984) 64 pp. ISBN 0909674221.
  • Wilsons Promontory (1984) 64 pp. ISBN 0909674256.
  • The Otway Ranges (1984) 64 pp. ISBN 090967423X.

 

Field Naturalists Club of Ballarat (2009)  Wattles of Ballarat. Field Naturalists Club of Ballarat Inc. 32 pp. ISBN 9780958078917.

Guide to 24 Acacia species of the area, with key, variable photos, brief descriptions and notes.

 

Fraser I & McJannett M (1998) Wildflowers of the snow country : a field guide to the Australian Alps. Vertego Press, Canberra.  (170 pp.  ISBN 0646352601.

Useful plain-English field guide to common and conspicuous herb and shrub species, organised by dominant flower colour, with short descriptions and quite good colour paintings. Covers Victorian and NSW alpine and subalpine regions.

 

Friends of Sherbrooke Forest (2000) Sherbrooke Forest : its flora and history. Friends of Sherbrooke Forest Inc., Belgrave, Vic.  42 pp.  ISBN 0646387200.

Local environmental history with 170 plants described with fair-quality colour photos.

 

Gray M & Knight J (eds) (2001)  Flora of Melbourne : a guide to the indigenous plants of the greater Melbourne area. 3rd edn. Hyland House, Melbourne.  393 pp.  ISBN 1864470852.

Descriptions of over 1200 indigenous species, with cultivation notes; with line drawings and some colour plates of nearly 1000 species.

 

Greig D (2002, 2012 reprint) A photographic guide to wildflowers of south-eastern Australia. New Holland. 144 pp.  ISBN-10 1864368063, ISBN-13 9781864368062.

Octavo (large pocket-sized) paperback general-interest guide covering about 250 species, with plain-language notes on distinctive features, line drawings, and colour photos.

 

Gullan P (2003 – ongoing)  Plants and animals of the box-ironbark area of central Victoria.  Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh East, Vic. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, pay to purchase ON-LINE and USB; limited interactivity: http://www.viridans.com.au : USB-Flash Drive; older CD-ROM versions also in circulation.

An information system covering  about 2,200 species of plants and 433 vertebrate animals for the area, with plain-English descriptions, notes, maps at 1:250,000 scale with overlay options, and one or more colour images for most species. See website  for details.

 

Gullan P (2003)  Wild things of greater Melbourne.  Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh East, Vic. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE and USB; limited interactivity; pay to purchase:

http://www.viridans.com.au : USB-Flash Drive; older CD-ROM versions also in circulation.

An information system covering  about 2,420 species of plants and 555 vertebrate animals for the area, with plain-English descriptions, notes, maps at 1:250,000 scale with overlay options, and one or more colour images for most species. See website for details.

 

Harris K (1997) Flowers and ferns of Morwell National Park. Friends of Morwell National Park, Churchill, Vic.  36 pp.  ISBN 0646309277.

Small but good colour photos, with vestigial text, for 384 species incl. 125 introduced taxa. 

 

Jones D & Jones B (1999) Native plants of Melbourne – and the adjoining area – a field guide. Bloomings Books, Hawthorn, Vic.  262 pp. ISBN 1876473134.

Excellent pocket guide, covering 252 species, about one quarter of the Melbourne flora.  Includes many herbaceous species, and many rarely illustrated. Excellent colour photos and short descriptive notes.

 

Levens L (1997) Wildflowers in the Dandenong Ranges: a beginner’s guide. Upper Beaconsfield Conservation Group, Upper Beaconsfield, Vic.  130 pp.  ISBN 064633967

Pocket-sized guide to 120 species (of about 300 in the area), arranged by flower colour; fair to very good colour photos with brief descriptive captions; no keys.

 

Lunt I, Barlow T & Ross J (1998)  Plains wandering: exploring the grassy plains of south-eastern Australia. Victorian National Parks Association, & Trust for Nature (Vic.), Melbourne, Vic.  152 pp.  ISBN 1875100121.

Excellent pocket-sized guide to a once widespread ecological community.  Covers 280 taxa with very good colour photos, scientific and common names, and vestigial text.  Good intro sections on the main grassland regions of the south-east. RECOMMENDED

 

Mallee Wildflower Committee [2010?] Flowers of the Mallee, north west Victoria. Malle Wildflower Committee. 89 pp. ISBN lacking.

Covers over 150 species, with brief descriptive notes and variable-quality colour photos.

 

Marriott N & Marriott J (1998) Grassland plants of south-eastern Australia : a field guide to native grassland and grassy woodland plants of south eastern Australia. Bloomings Books, Hawthorn, Vic.  183 pp.  ISBN 1876473002.

A very useful guide, with short text and notes, and fair quality colour photographs, of 170 grassland species, mostly common or widespread.

 

Mayfield E, & Geelong Botanic Gardens (2010)  Flora of the Otway Plain and Ranges 1: orchids, irises, lilies, grass-trees, mat-rushes and other petaloid Monocotyledons.

First imprint, Linton Press, Geelong, Vic. (2006); second imprint CSIRO Publishing (2010). 232 pp. ISBN-10 0977571203; ISBN-13 9780643098046. Out of print at April 2015; ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: e-book: see http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/18/pid/6410.htm.

Covers more than 200 species (including 130 orchids) with visual keys based on flower-colour, good colour watercolour illustrations that include diagnostic details, and plain-English descriptive text.

 

Mayfield E (2013) Flora of the Otway Plain and Ranges 2: daisies, heaths, peas, saltbushes, sundews, wattles and other shrubby and herbaceous dicotyledons. CSIRO Publishing. 436 pp. ISBN 9780643098060.

Covers more than 480 species; each with good watercolour illustrations showing diagnostic detail. Includes an image-and-text key to the 75 families covered.

Out of print at April 2015, but ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: eBook: ISBN 9780643098077 (epdf), 9780643108349 (epub); see http://www.publish.csiro.au/pid/6521.htm.  

 

McCann IR (2001) The Alps in flower. 4th edn. Victorian National Parks Association, East Melbourne.  64 pp.  ISBN 1876100237.

Pictorial identification guide to about 180 species, mostly shrubs and herbs. Good quality colour photos, with common and scientific names and a single line of descriptive and distribution information.

 

McCann IR (1989) The Mallee in flower.  Victorian National Parks Association, Melbourne.  120 pp.  ISBN 1875100016.

Colour photo guide to more than 400 prominent native species, with common and scientific names, and a very brief statement of habit, flowering season, and distribution within mallee reserves. Lacks good written descriptions.

 

McCann IR (1992) The coast and hinterland in flower. Victorian National Parks Association, Melbourne.  120 pp.  ISBN 1875100059.

Colour-photo guide to 372 prominent native species of the Victorian coastal and near-coastal regions. Common and scientific names are given, with a very brief statement of habit, flowering season, and distribution within reserves.

 

Meagher D & Kohout M (2001) A field guide to Wilsons Promontory. Oxford University Press, South Melbourne.  352 pp.  ISBN 0195508572.

A general field guide to the animals and plants of the area. The plant section (which includes bryophytes) is arranged by growth form, with brief descriptions and notes, adequate line drawings, and black and white photos for the mosses and liverworts.

 

Monument Hill Parklands Association Inc., & Albury/Wodonga Field Naturalists Club Inc.  [1997]  Along the bush tracks — Albury-Wodonga.  Albury-Wodonga Regional Parklands. 40 pp.  ISBN 0646320475.

Booklet-sized guide to flora and fauna of the area, with short descriptions and fair-quality colour photos of 53 common plant species.

 

Morgan IL, Goods G & Goods M (2014) Birds and plants of the Little Desert: a photographic guide. Self-publ by the authors, Horsham Vic. [email littledesertbook@gmail.com,  phone 0427340552 or 0427832249.  330 pp. ISBN 9780646914237.

Covers about 430 plants, roughly 2/3 of the total for the area, with colour photos and plain-language text.

 

Murphy J & Dowling B (2012) Plants of the Victorian High Country: a field guide for walkers. CSIRO Publishing,  Collingwood, Vic. 136 pp. ISBN 9870643104631 (pbk), 9780643104648 (epdf), 9780643104655 (epub). ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: available as ebook.

119 species, nearly all with good colour photos. Organised into groups (daisies, non-daisy herbs, low shrubs, tall shrubs and non-eucalypt trees, eucalypts); each group with a simple key to genera.

 

Nathalia Wildflower Group (1999) Flora of the Nathalia district and Barmah Forest. Nathalia Wildflower Group, Shepparton, Vic.  96 pp.  ISBN 0646383485.

Long pocket format and field-tough. Covers 82 common and conspicuous native species, and six herbaceous weeds, all with fair quality colour photos and a few line sketches. Very brief but clear descriptions and notes; no keys.

 

Perry D, Jeffery E & Burns D (2000) Indigenous trees and shrubs of the west Port Phillip Norfolk region. Department of  Natural Resources & Environment, Geelong, Vic.  (unpaginated, 1 vol.) ISBN 0731145186.

Ringbound foolscap format, field hardy. This is an enhanced checklist, consisting of lists of trees, shrubs, and understorey species for each of several zones within the area, with common and scientific names and habitat codes. It contains no keys, descriptions or illustrations.

 

Scott R, Blake N, Campbell J, Evans D & Williams N (2002)  Indigenous plants of the sandbelt : a gardening guide for south-eastern Melbourne. Earthcare St Kilda Inc., Melbourne.  152 pp. ISBN 095810090X.

Covers about 180 species, organised by plant form; fair-quality colour photos, minimal descriptive text, no keys. The emphasis is on species and information relevant to home and landscape horticulture.

 

S.G.A.P. Keilor Plains Group (1995)  Plants of Melbourne’s western plains – a gardener’s guide to the original flora. Society for Growing Australian Plants, Niddrie, Vic.  74 pp.  ISBN 0909830487.

126 species are illustrated by colour photos, with brief descriptive and horticultural notes.

 

Sparrow K et al.  (2013)  Plants of the great south-west.  Revised and expanded edition. Society for Growing Australian plants, Warrnambool & District Group Inc. [ksparrow93@gmail.com]. 351 pp. ISBN 9780975136010. Covers the coastal region of Victoria west from Port Campbell. Contains a list of the nearly 1000 species known from the area, of which close to 500 are illustrated with small colour photos and briefly described with notes on habitat, distribution, and horticultural propagation.  Supersedes Sparrow K & Pritchard, A  (2004)  Plants of the great south-west [148 pp.  ISBN 0975136003; 185 species].

 

Strickland K & Strickland P (1992, 1994) Peninsula plants : a field guide to indigenous plants of the Mornington Peninsula. Kareelah Bush Nursery, Balnarring, Vic.  (2 vols.)

  • 1. (1992) 199 pp. ISBN 0646083961,
  • 2, (1994) 201 pp. ISBN 0646214349.

Brief descriptions and notes, plus fair-quality line drawings, for about 200 species. Each volume contains a mixture of families and genera, organised by growth habit; orchids are in Vol. 2.

 

Strickland K & Strickland P (1997) Sub-alpine flora of the Baw Baw Plateau, Victoria. Kareelah, Balnarring, Vic. 154 pp.  ISBN 0646320521.

A useful field guide, including mosses and ferns as well as flowering herbs, shrubs and trees. Good line-drawings and plain-English text.

 

Strickland K & Strickland P (2003) Foothills to foreshore : a field guide to selected indigenous plants of southern Victoria suitable for cultivation. Kareelah, Balnarring, Vic.  409 pp.  ISBN 0646422812.

Over 200 species, organised firstly by habit and then by scientific classification. Each species has a very brief description and notes and a good line drawing; no keys.

 

Swan Bay Integrated Catchment Management Committee (2006) Coastal plants of the Bellarine Peninsula. Swan Bay Integrated Catchment Management Committee (https://www.landcarevic.org.au/groups/corangamite/bcn/bellarine-indigenous-flora-booklets-html/). 63 pp. ISBN lacking.

Pocket-sized field guide to 50 common native plants of the coast, with fair quality colour photos and brief notes.

 

Swan Bay Integrated Catchment Management Committee (2006) Inland plants of the Bellarine Peninsula. Swan Bay Integrated Catchment Management Committee (https://www.landcarevic.org.au/groups/corangamite/bcn/bellarine-indigenous-flora-booklets-html/). 61 pp. ISBN lacking.

Pocket-sized field guide to 50 common native plants of the woodlands away from the coast, with fair quality colour photos and brief notes.

 

Trigg C & Trigg M (2000) Wildflowers of the Brisbane Ranges. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic.  120pp.  ISBN 0643065644.

Good colour photos of almost 400 species (a majority of those in the area), with very brief caption information. An identification aid is provided with the photos, based on flower colour and flower/inflorescence form. Does not include the apetaloid monocots (grasses, sedges, etc.)

 

White MD (1989) The flowers of the Anglesea River valley.  M.D. White, [Vic.]  120 pp.  ISBN 0731667905.

Black and white line drawings, average quality; plants grouped by colour and shape of flowers.

 

White MD (1990) Coastal vegetation of Anglesea – Airey’s Inlet region. M.D. White, [Vic.]  70 pp.  ISBN 0731689720.

Black and white line drawings, average quality; plants grouped by colour and shape of flowers.

 

Wigney R (ed) (1994) Plants of the Merri Merri : a home gardener’s guide to using indigenous plants in the northern suburbs of Melbourne. Rev. edn. Merri Creek Management Committee, Northcote, Vic.  120 pp.  ISBN 0959494227.

Outlines the plant communities of the area; descriptions of 188 species, with line-drawings.

 

 

 

 

TASMANIA

 

Note that depending on dates of publication, Flora of Australia volumes may provide more up to date treatments than some State-specific printed resources. See http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/

 

This section lists general cross-family resources, mainly of the ‘plants-of-area’ sort. For additional resources, see other sections of this bibliography (e.g. Weeds, Threatened Species, particular plant groups or habitats, Algae, Fungi).

 

 

Tasmanian Herbarium identification service

 

Tasmanian Herbarium — Plant Identification Service

http://www.tmag.tas.gov.au/collections_and_research/tasmanian_herbarium

Scope:  Plant identification service (vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens) for the general public, land managers and the commercial sector; an identification service for forensic, poisons, quarantine and weed-control related enquiries.

Location: College Road, Sandy Bay, within the University of Tasmania.

Submission of specimens: over-the-counter hours 9 am – 5 pm weekdays. An appointment is advisable for any large or non-routine inquiries.

Charges: commercial charges apply; some concession or waiver possible by prior discussion.

Self-help:  access by appointment to a reference collection of plant specimens.

Contact: Kim Hill on (03) 6226 2635, or herbarium@tmag.tas.gov.au. Postal address: Tasmanian Herbarium, PO Box 5058, UTAS LPO, Sandy Bay TAS 7005.

 

 

Tasmania – Census of vascular plants

 

Baker ML & de Salas MF (2013) A Census Of The Vascular Plants Of Tasmania and Index to The Student’s Flora of Tasmania and Flora of Tasmania Online. Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart.  ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: Free PDF: www.tmag.tas.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/77607/2013_Census_of_Tasmanian_Vascular_Plants.pdf

 

Tasmania – State Flora/Plant information system

 

Flora of Tasmania Online. (2009-ongoing). Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum & Art Gallery: Hobart). www.tmag.tas.gov.au/floratasmania or http://demo1.tmag.tas.gov.au/

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE (free PDF downloads)

Flora of Tasmania Online presents information on all flowering plants, native and naturalized, for the State, including descriptions, keys, taxonomic relationships, distributions and ecology.

Flora of Tasmania Online is published in fascicles: usually 1 fascicle per family, with full keys, short descriptions, and distribution and habitat notes. 58 families have been treated up to June 2015. The accounts are available as downloadable PDF files and web pages.

Flora of Tasmania Online fascicles are also available at the State Library of Tasmania website.

 

Jordan G (2019) Ket to Tasmanian vascular plants. University of Tasmania.

www.utas.edu.au/dicotkey/ ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE

Covers flowering plants, conifers, ferns and allies, liverworts and mosses – although some familes (e.g. Poaceae, grasses) and genera are stillunder development. A very user-friendly dichotomous key with the characters at each lead illustrated by good colour zoomable thumbnail images. From terminal taxa you can click through to short plain-English descriptions with images, some showing different features or life stages. For further background,see Jordan (2016) in Australasian Plant Conservation 25(1): 15-17.

 

Tasmania – field guides and handbooks

 

Burns D (2001) Significant flora of Cradle Mountain day walk areas : plant identikit. Dick Burns, Sheffield, Tas. 80 pp.  ISBN 0958060606.

Pocket-sized field guide, covering about 50 species, with short plain-English descriptions and notes  and fair to good colour photos.

 

Cameron M (ed) (2000) A guide to flowers & plants of Tasmania. 3rd  edn. Reed New Holland, Sydney.  120 pp.  ISBN 1876334584.

Covers 300 species, arranged by vegetation community, with short plain-English descriptions and fair-quality colour plates.

 

Collier P (1995) Plant Identikit: Alpine wildflowers of Tasmania. Revised edition. Society for Growing Australian Plants, Tasmanian Region Inc. 65 pp.  ISBN 090983038X.

Pocket-sized field guide to 54 species, with very brief descriptions and notes, sample localities, cultivation notes, and fair-quality colour illustrations.

 

Collier P (2012) Plant Identikit: Wildflowers of Mt Wellington. 2nd edition. Australian Plants Society Tasmania Inc. 65 pp.  ISBN 9780909830687.

Pocket-sized field guide to 55 species, with very brief descriptions and notes, sample localities, cultivation notes, and fair-quality colour illustrations. The previous ‘revised edition’ pof 1997 remains useful, though dated for a few species.

 

Collier P & Howells, C (2006) Plant Identikit: Woodland wildflowers of Tasmania. Second edition. Australian Plants Society Tasmania Inc., Hobart Group. 65 pp.  ISBN 0909830398.

Pocket-sized field guide to 55 species, with very brief descriptions and notes, sample localities, cultivation notes, and fair-quality colour illustrations.

 

Collier P & Howells, C (2007) Plant Identikit: Rainforest plants of Tasmania. Second edition. Australian Plants Society Tasmania Inc., Hobart Group. 65 pp.  ISBN 0909830444..

Pocket-sized field guide to 53 species, with very brief descriptions and notes, sample localities, cultivation notes, and fair-quality colour illustrations.

 

Collier P et al. (2010) Plant Identikit: Common orchids of Tasmania. Second edition. Australian Plants Society Tasmania Inc., Hobart Group. 65 pp.  ISBN 9780909830649.

Pocket-sized field guide to 72 species, with very brief descriptions and notes, sample localities, cultivation notes, and fair-quality colour illustrations.

 

Curtis W (various dates 1956-1994) The student’s flora of Tasmania. (5 vols). Parts 1-3, 4A, 4B.   ISBN 0724623213 (set).

  • Curtis WM & Morris DI (1975, reprint 1993) The Student’s Flora of Tasmania Part 1 – Gymnospermae; Angiospermae: Ranunculaceae to Myrtaceae. 2nd edition. 1993 – St. David’s Park Publishing: Hobart. (239 pp.) ISBN 0724622810.
  • Curtis WM (1963, reprint 1994) The Student’s Flora of Tasmania Part 2 – Angiospermae: Lythraceae to Epacridaceae. 1994 – St. David’s Park Publishing: Hobart. (475 pp.) ISBN 0724622896.
  • Curtis WM (1967, reprint 1994) The Student’s Flora of Tasmania Part 3 – Angiospermae: Plumbaginaceae to Salicaceae. 1994 – St. David’s Park Publishing: Hobart. (660 pp.) ISBN 0724622977.
  • Curtis WM (1979, reprint 1994) The Student’s Flora of Tasmania Part 4A – Angiospermae: Orchidaceae. 1994 – St. David’s Park Publishing: Hobart. (138 pp.) ISBN 0724623051.
  • Curtis WM & Morris DI (1994) The Student’s Flora of Tasmania Part 4B — Angiospermae: Alismataceae to Burmanniaceae. David’s Park Publishing: Hobart.

(459 pp.) ISBN 0724623132.

Standard keys and botanical descriptions, very few illustrations. Now very dated and of mainly historical interest. The structure and publication history have made referencing and navigation complex – an index to this work, matched to currently recognised names and taxa, is available in Baker ML & de Salas MF (2013) A Census Of The Vascular Plants Of Tasmania (see above).

 

Galbraith J (1977) A field guide to the wild flowers of south-east Australia. Collins, Sydney.  450 pp.  ISBN 2190462.

Now very dated and of purely historical interest. Very brief descriptions of a large range of native species from the temperate south-east, including SE Queensland and Tasmania. 48 pp. of colour photos show examples of many genera. Simple key system to family and genus level only.

 

Gilfedder L, Kirkpatrick J, Wapstra A, & Wapstra H (2003) The nature of the Midlands. Midlands Bushweb, North Midlands Council, Longford, Tas.

Covers more than 300 species, with good diagnostic text and fair-to-good colour photos.

 

Harris S, Buchanan A & Connolly A (2001) One hundred islands : the flora of the Outer Furneaux. Tasmanian Dept of Primary Industries, Water & Environment, Hobart.  361 pp.  ISBN 0724662634

Comprehensive for the vascular flora, 437 native and naturalised species; good colour photos, with very brief descriptive and habitat notes; no keys. Introductory section with useful floristic and geophysical information on each island and islet. RECOMMENDED

 

Howells C & Gulline H (2011) Plant Identikit: Coastal plants of Tasmania. Australian Plants Society Tasmania Inc. 65 pp. ISBN 0909830606.

Pocket-sized field guide to 54 species of coastal cliffs, dunes and seashores, with very brief descriptions and notes, sample localities, cultivation notes, and fair-quality colour illustrations.

 

Howells C (ed.) (2012)  Tasmania’s natural flora. 2nd ed. Australian Plants Society Tasmania Inc., Hobart Group. 431 pp. ISBN 9780909830663 (pbk), 9780909830670 (hbk).

A slight misnomer as it excludes a number of groups – notably the orchids, ferns, and the graminoids (grasses, Cyperaceae, and the restiad rushes). Most dicotyledons, and the liliaceous and iridaceous monocots, are covered, with brief plain-English descriptions and variable-quality colour photos; no keys. First edition was authored by J Whiting et al. (2004, 396 pp., ISBN 0646439162).

 

King Island Natural Resource Management Group (2002)  King Island flora : a field guide.  King Island Natural Resource Management Group, King Island.  137 pp.  ISBN 095818870X.

Ringbound, field-tough handbook covering 300 species, each with a fair to good colour photos, brief plain-English descriptions, and notes on habitat; plus a good bibliography.

 

Kirkpatrick J (1997) Alpine Tasmania : an illustrated guide to the flora and vegetation. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.  196 pp.  ISBN 019553753X.

Compact field guide, with easy life-form key to groups of taxa. Over 400 high quality line drawings and a few colour plates, plus short descriptions and notes. RECOMMENDED

 

Kirkpatrick JB & Backhouse S (1985) Native trees of Tasmania. S. Backhouse, Hobart. 135 pp. [No ISBN]

Pictorial key; line drawings of plants with notes on diagnostic features.

 

Kirkpatrick JB & Harris S (1999) The disappearing heath revisited. Tasmanian Environment Centre Inc.  210 pp. ISBN 0909160198.

Not primarily for species identification (concentrating on vegetation communities and their conservation), but does include tips on identification of the more common species, with good line drawings for some.

 

Lloyd S (2011) Munginabitta’s country: flora and fauna at Panatana and Marshalls Hill. Six Rivers Aboriginal Corporation (PO Box 1281, Devonport, Tas. 7310). 76 pp.

Sturdy ring-bound field guide, including colour photos of many of the common plants and fungi of the area, with some notes on traditional uses.

 

Lunt I, Barlow T & Ross J (1998) Plains wandering: exploring the grassy plains of south-eastern Australia. Victorian National Parks Association, & Trust for Nature (Vic.), Melbourne.  152 pp.  ISBN 1875100121.

Excellent pocket-sized guide with some Tasmanian applicability. Covers 280 taxa with very good colour photos, scientific and common names, and vestigial text.

 

Minchin RF (2005) Wilflowers of Tasmania: a field guide. Peregrine Pres, North Hobart. 234 pp. ISBN 097571662X.

Pocket-sized field guide to many of the more conspicuous flowering taxa, with short plain-English descriptions and variable-quality colour photos of about 300 species, plus brief ecological information. No keys.  A shorter first edition was published as ‘Tasmanian wildflowers. Vol. 1: a field guide’ (1996) by Regal Publications, Launceston, Tas. (ISBN 0949457825) – the extent of revision for the retitled work has not been ascertained.

 

Simmons M, Wapstra H, Wapstra A (eds.). (2008) A guide to flowers & plants of Tasmania (4th ed.). Launceston Field Naturalists Club/Reed New Holland. 176 pp. ISBN  9781877069475.

Covers 265 species with brief plain-English descriptions and fair to good colour photos.A good general-interest guide.

 

Simmons MH (2009) Wattles of Tasmania. Marion H Simmons, PO Box 1148, Legana Tas. 7277. 64 pp. ISBN 9780646522883.

A gardener’s guide, with cultivation notes, to 24 Acacia species (out of c. 37) occurring in Tasmania. Plain-english descriptions and fair quality line illustrations.

 

Spencer, R (ed.) (1995-2002) Horticultural flora of south-eastern Australia: the identification of garden and cultivated plants . University of NSW Press, Sydney. (4 vols to date)  ISBN 0868401676 (set).

  • 1 (1995): Ferns, conifers and their allies. 464 pp., ISBN 0868402060.
  • 2 (1997) Flowering plants. Dicotyledons part 1. 606 pp., ISBN 0868403032.
  • 3 (2002) Flowering plants. Dicotyledons part 2. 619 pp., ISBN-10 0868406600, ISBN-13 978-0868406602.
  • 4 (2002) Flowering plants. Dicotyledons part 3. 534 pp., ISBN 0868406848.

Guide to the native and exotic plants in these groups likely to be found in horticultural situations, with general and cultivation notes.  Can be very useful where the horticultural versus native/naturalised situation of a plant is not clear.

 

Wapstra M, Wapstra A, & Wapstra H (2010) Tasmanian plant names unravelled. Fullers Bookshop, Launceston, Tas. 471 pp. ISBN 9780980472028.

Not an identification book, but an exhaustive catalogue of the origin and meaning of the scientific names of Tasmania’s 2750 native and natiuralised vascular plants.  Nevertheless it does have colour photographs (of variable quality) of almost 900 species.

 

Wilshire R & Jordan G (2009) TreeFlip: life-sized guide to the trees of Tasmania. School of Plant Science (University of Tasmania) and Cooperative Research Centre for Forestry. ISBN 8186295496

A laminated (field-hardy) map-sized document that folds down to long-pocket size or doubles as an educational poster. Pictorial guide for identification of 30 of the State’s non-eucalypt trees. Excellent colour images of leaves, flowers, fruit and bark, plus information on distribution, location and uses. See also Wilshire & Potts (2007) Eucaflip, in Myrtaceae section of this bibliography.

 

 

 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

 

Note that depending on dates of publication, Flora of Australia volumes may provide more up to date treatments than some State-specific printed resources. See http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/

 

This section lists general cross-family resources, mainly of the ‘plants-of-area’ sort. For additional resources, see other sections of this bibliography (e.g. Weeds, Threatened Species, particular plant groups or habitats, Algae, Fungi).

 

 

SA Herbarium identification service

 

State Herbarium of South Australia — Identification Service.

http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/Science/Science_research/State_Herbarium

Scope:  Native and naturalized plants, algae and macrofungi (not cultivated exotic plants).

Fees: Discretionary charges may apply.

Submission of specimens: Dried specimens may be submitted at the reception desk or sent by mail:

  • Street: Plant Biodiversity Centre, Hackney Road, Adelaide SA 5000. Appointment advisable: ph. 08 8222 9311.
  • Postal: forward specimens to The Manager,State Herbarium of South Australia, Plant Biodiversity Centre, PO Box 2732, Kent Town, 5071, South Australia.

Self-help: The Reference Herbarium (9am – 5pm, Monday–Friday) comprises exemplar specimens of most plants found in the wild in South Australia. A small working library and low-power microscopes are available; on-line identification tools will be made available as developed. Prior skills in plant identification are assumed –guidance available but an appointment is essential for this.

 

 

South Australia – State flora and Plant information system

 

Kellerman J (2011 – ongoing) (ed.), Flora of South Australia (edition 5). State Herbarium of South Australia, Adelaide. www.flora.sa.gov.au/ed5

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE: free downloadable PDFs

A revised Flora for the vascular plants of the State (updating the 4th edition of Jessop & Toelken 1986 – see below), with family treatments added as they become available in whole or in part.

Delivery is mainly on-line, with very limited numbers of hardcopies produced for sale – contact the Editor for details (Dr Jürgen Kellermann, Editor, Flora of South Australia, State Herbarium of South Australia, PO Box 2732 Kent Town SA 5071; juergen.kellermann@sa.gov.au).

As at July 2015 the available chapters are the Introduction, the Key to families of SA plants, and treatments for the following families (variously authored, some of them part of family only):

  • Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae (Compositae) (in part), Berberidaceae, Centrolepidaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Commelinaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Droseraceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae) (in part), Gunneraceae, Hydatellaceae, Juglandaceae, Loganiaceae, Loranthaceae, Myrtaceae (in part), Papaveraceae, Passifloraceae, Picrodendraceae, Ranunculaceae, Santalaceae, Tamaricaceae, Xyridaceae,

These and future family treatments progressively supersede those of the 1986 4th edition (see next). Treatments are in standard Flora format: full keys to genera and species, short descriptions, distributions, conservation status, very brief general notes, and good diagnostic line illustrations. RECOMMENDED

 

Jessop J & Toelken H (eds) (1986) Flora of South Australia. 4th edition. South Australian Government Printing Division, Adelaide.  (4 vols.)

Vol. 1 477 pp. ISBN 0724346481 Vol. 2 629 pp. ISBN 0724346562 Vol. 3 576 pp. ISBN 0724346643  Vol. 4 566 pp. ISBN 0724346724.

Keys and botanical descriptions, plus line illustrations for a proportion of the species. This edition is now out of date for many groups – it contains 3600 recognised taxa for the State, as against 4800 currently. However it is still of use in some families, especially those for which chapters in the new 5th edition (Kellerman, 2011–, see above) have not yet been developed.

 

 

South Australia – Census of Plants, Algae and Fungi

 

The Census of SA Plants, Algae and Fungi is part of the Electronic Flora of South Australia (eFlora SA) on-line information system.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE. ON-LINE:  http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/census.shtml.

The Census covers all major flora groups for which the State Herbarium is responsible: the vascular plants (flowering plants, conifers and ferns), bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, hornworts), macro-fungi, algae and lichens. It lists recognised and synonymous scientific names (all searchable), regional distribution summaries, native/exotic flags, conservation rating, and (for invasive species) declared status. Continually updated.

The Census forms the backbone of eFlora SA — from the Census outputs you can link to access the fact sheets that are available (shown by hyperlink) of species, genera and families.

 

The last printed version of the SA census was:

 

Barker WR, Barker R, Jessop J & Vonow H (2005). Census of South Australia vascular plants, Edition 5.0.  [Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, Supplement 1]. Botanic Gardens of Adelaide & State Herbarium: Adelaide. (397 pp.) ISBN 0759000921.

Free PDF download from: http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/pdfs/Census_5.0_web.pdf

 

 

South Australia – field guides and handbooks

 

Bagust P & Tout-Smith L (2010) The Native Plants of Adelaide – returning the vanishing natural heritage of the Adelaide Plains to your garden. Updated Edition. Wakefield Press. 132 pp. ISBN  9781862548794.

Profiles over 100 of the formerly common or conspicuous species of the region, each with at least one photograph, plain-language description, and ancillary information. Horticultural emphasis.

 

Berkinshaw T (2006) Native vegetation of the Northern and Yorke Region: a guide to the identification, protection and restoration of native vegetation communities and plant species of the Northern Agricultural Districts and Yorke Peninsula. Greening Australia SA / Northern and Yorke Natural Resources Management (NRM) Board (PO Box 702, Clare SA 5453). 199 pp. ISBN 0977514315

Out of the 1600 native plant species in the area, 90 common trees and shrubs (especially those commonly used in ecological restoration work) are covered in some detail, with brief plain-English descriptions, notes, and colour photos. A further 161 native native understorey species are shown by photos with very brief notes, and 84 introduced weed species. The other half of the book is descriptions of local plant communities (including lists of their main constituent species, which assists ID). Introductory section has notes on seed collection and propagation for common restoration species.

 

Berkinshaw T (2006) Native vegetation of the Murray Region: a guide to the identification, protection and restoration of native vegetation communities and plant species of the South Australian Murray Darling Basin. Greening Australia SA / Mid Murray Local Action Planning Committee (PO Box 10, Cambrai SA 5353, ph 08 8564 6034). 127 pp. ISBN 0977514307.

82 of the common tree and shrub species are covered in some detail (brief descriptions and notes, with good colour photos). A further 163 native understorey species are shown by photos with very brief notes, and 84 introduced weed species. Introductory section includes notes on seed collection and propagation for common restoration species, and descriptions of local plant communities. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: Also includes an interactive CD-ROM for easy access/download of information on 132 significant plant species and 39 significant vegetation communities of the region.

 

Berkinshaw T (2009) Mangroves to Mallee: the complete guide to the vegetation of temperate South Australia. Greening Australia (South Australia), Pasadena SA. 399 pp. ISBN 9780977514328.

A guide to the vegetation of South Australia’s southern agricultural districts. Covers 386 native and 112 weed species, with short descriptions and notes, and fair to good colour photos. Not fully comprehensive but an excellent handbook for a large region. Also contains good profiles of the native plant communities of the area. RECOMMENDED

 

Bonney N (1988) Common plants of the Coorong. Pioneer Design Studio, Lilydale, Vic.  64 pp.  ISBN 0909674348.

One of the growing series of “Plant Identikit”, illustrated pocket sized booklets for various regions. Moderately useful illustrations of selected species, brief descriptions, and notes on confusable species in the area.

 

Bonney N (1988) Common plants of the Flinders Ranges. N. Bonney, Adelaide.  64 pp.  ISBN 0646154060.

One of the growing series of “Plant Identikit”, illustrated pocket sized booklets for various regions. Moderately useful illustrations of selected species, brief descriptions, and notes on confusable species in the area.

 

Bonney N (2003) What seed is that? : a guide to the identification, collection, germination and establishment of native plant species for central southern Australian landscapes. Rev. edn. Greening Australia South Australia, Adelaide.   352 pp. ISBN 0646198203.

Descriptions of about 300 South Australian native plant species, with fair-quality colour paintings and black and white drawings, with an emphasis on field recognition and species suitable for seed collection for revegetation programs.  Hints on seed collection and propagation are provided, plus notes on ecology and distribution, and summary tables of information on propagation and revegetation uses.  Several pages of colour photos of seeds are provided – the actual-size reproductions limit their value for identification purposes, and they are nowhere stated to be scientifically vouchered. 

 

Bonney N [2006] Adnyamathanha and beyond – useful plants of an ancient land. Australian Plants Society, South Australian Region Inc. 99 pp. ISBN 9780980301304.

An account of plants of the Flinders Ranges used by the Adnyamathanha people, with many good photographs and brief botanical descriptions embedded in the mainly ethnobotanical text. Much data on traditional names and uses.

 

Bonney N (2010)What south-east native plant is that? Identifying and growing native vegetation in the south east of South Australia. South East Natural Resources Management Board, Mount Gambier, SA. 165 pp. ISBN 9780646529592.

A key identification system for plants likely to be used in regeneration, with some descriptive information, colour photos and line drawings.

 

Boomsma CD (1981) Native trees of South Australia. Revised edition. [Woods and Forests Department Bulletin no 19, Adelaide SA]. 288 pp.

Based on a 1972 original, very dated. Illustrations, notes, and maps.

 

Costermans L   (2009) Native trees and shrubs of south-eastern Australia – covering areas of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. New Holland. 432 pp. ISBN-13:  9781877069703.

A popular book with many colour images, but very dated, nowhere near comprehensive, and not for serious identification. The text and most captions date from the 1983 edition, with an  appendix noting taxonomic and nomenclatural changes to 2009.

 

Cummins J & Moerkerk M (1999) Weeds: the ute guide. Primary Industries and Resources South Australia, Adelaide.  108 pp.  ISBN 0730842290.

Ring-bound, rugged, and pocket-sized guide to 93 weed species of southern Australia. Brief descriptions and fair-quality colour photos.

 

Dashorst GRM & Jessop JP (2006) Plants of the Adelaide plains and hills. 3rd edn. Botanic Gardens of Adelaide and State Herbarium, Adelaide.  224 pp..  ISBN 0977560805.

Covers the area from Goolwa to Gawler. With about 1200 species it is a good proportion of those in the area (except fungi). Includes native and naturalised plants, bryophytes, lichens, and a selection of macrofungi and marine algae. Very short descriptions and distribution statements are matched to rather good watercolour paintings. Earlier editions retain some value.

 

Eardley CM (1979) Wildflowers of the Adelaide hills. 2nd edn. Axiom Books, Milton, Qld.  109 pp.  ISBN 070160610X.

Pocket-sized booklet (similar to the Plant Identikit series). Short plain-English descriptions and colour painting plates of a sample of 45 common or conspicuous species.

 

Friebe M & Matheson B (2006) Shrubs and trees of the Great Victoria Desert. The Friends of the Great Victoria Desert Parks. 57 pp. ISBN 0646459481.

Brief descriptions of 50 of the most common shrubs and trees, with variable quality colour photos. Biased to the South Australian portion of the GVD but also useful for the WA portion.

 

Greig D  (2002)  A photographic guide to wildflowers of outback Australia.  New Holland Publishers, Frenchs Forest, NSW. 144 pp. ISBN 1864368055.

A handy but very general guide to 250 species of a huge area of the inland, in long pocket format. Small fair-quality colour photos, with very brief plain-English descriptions and notes.

 

Gullan P (2003 – ongoing)  Wild plants of Adelaide and Kangaroo Island.  Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh East, Vic. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE and USB; limited interactivity:

 http://www.viridans.com.au : pay to purchase, available in Web-delivered and USB-Flash Drive versions. 

An information system covering  about 3,000 vascular plant species, with plain-English descriptions, notes, distribution maps on a 1-minute grid with overlay options, and one or more colour images for most species. [Not evaluated in detail; see website for details.]

 

Holliday I, Overton B & Overton D (1994) Kangaroo Island’s native plants. The Authors, Adelaide.  63 pp.  ISBN 0646172557.

246 species illustrated with variable-quality small colour photos; minimal notes including. scientific and common names, family, and distribution on- and off-island.

 

Jackson I (1988) The flora of Kangaroo Island : from the sketchbooks of Ida Jackson.  South Australian National Parks & Wildlife Service, Adelaide.  408 pp.  ISBN 0724389917.

An unusual book, but potentially useful for the Island. It treats the island as a number of zones, and for each lists (alphabetically) the families/genera/species that occur there; each species is given a short paragraph description. Very rough line illustrations complement the text.

 

Jessop J (ed.) (1981) Flora of Central Australia. Reed, Sydney. 537 pp. ISBN 0589502262.

Now dated for some (many?) groups, but still of some use for parts of inland SA north of a line from Ceduna to Renmark. Comprehensive keys and botanical descriptions, few line illustrations.

 

Kraehenbuehl DN (1996)  Pre-European vegetation of Adelaide: a survey from the Gawler River to Hallett Cove. Nature Conservation Society of South Australia Inc., Adelaide, SA.  317 pp. ISBN 0949751243.

Not an identification guide, but this hardback historical overview of the vegetation of the region may assist identification through its lists of native species for various sub-zones, some of which are probably near-comprehensive. A few species are illustrated with good colour photos.

 

Kutsche F & Lay B  (2003) Field guide to the plants of outback South Australia.  Dept of Water, Land & Biodiversity Conservation, South Australia. 304 pp. ISBN 0759010528.

Compact guide covering 437 species, categorised by life form. Each species has a short plain-English description and notes, with good colour photos of habit and close-up details. Graphic icons indicate relevant land-types. Aboriginal names (sourced to language) are given for many.  RECOMMENDED

 

Lunt I, Barlow T & Ross J (1998) Plains wandering : exploring the grassy plains of south-eastern Australia. Victorian National Parks Association, & Trust for Nature (Vic.), Melbourne.  152 pp.  ISBN 1875100121.

Pocket-sized guide to a this ecological community. Covers 280 taxa with very good colour photos, scientific and common names, and vestigial text.

 

Marriott N & Marriott J (1998) Grassland plants of south-eastern Australia : a field guide to native grassland and grassy woodland plants of south eastern Australia. Bloomings Books, Hawthorn, Vic.  183 pp.  ISBN 1876473002.

Short text and notes, and fair quality colour photographs, of 170 grassland species, mostly common or widespread.

 

McCann I. (1989) The Mallee in flower. Victorian National Parks Association, Melbourne.  120 pp.  ISBN 1875100016.

Victorian emphasis, but has some applicability for eastern SA. Colour photo guide to more than 400 species, with common and scientific names, and a very brief statement of habit, flowering season, and distribution within mallee reserves.

 

Mid North Grasslands Working Group (s.d. – 2006?) Grasses, gums and groundcovers: a field guide to the common native plants of the Northern Agricultural Districts of South Australia. Custom Press, Bromptoin SA / Mid North Grasslands Working Group (PO Box 488, Clare SA 5453; www.nativegrass.org.au). 136 pp. ISBN 0646463152.

Sturdy ring-bound guide to 120+ species, organised by growth form. Brief plain-language notes on features and habitat, with fair-quality colour photos.

 

Moore  P (2005) A guide to plants of inland Australia. Reed New Holland. 504 pp. ISBN-10 187633486X; ISBN-13 9781876334864.

A very useful field guide to about 900 species, albeit over a very large swathe of the continent, with short descriptions and fair-quality colour photos.  Introductory sections outline the evolutionary history of the region and broad vegetation types.

 

O’Connor H, Smyth J & Smith I (1984)  Wildflowers of Lower Eyre Peninsula – plant identikit. Society for Growing Australian Plants – SA region, Adelaide, SA. 83 pp. ISBN 0646195042.

Pocket-sized guide to 73 common species with very brief plain-English descriptions and notes, and fair-quality colour paintings.

 

Overton B & Overton D (2012) Discover Kangaroo Island’s native plants. Environmental Realist, Kingscote, SA. 115 pp. ISBN-13: 9780646585765.

Comb-bound field guide covering 396 species – mainly pictorial, colour images with very brief descriptive and habitat notes; no keys.

 

Pedler R (ed.) (1982) Wildflowers of the southern Flinders Ranges – plant identikit. Society for Growing Australian Plants – SA region, Adelaide, SA. 69 pp. No ISBN.

Pocket-sized guide to 60-odd of the more common species, with very brief plain-English descriptions and notes, and fair-quality colour paintings.

 

Pedler R (ed.) (1984) Wildflowers of the northern Flinders Ranges – plant identikit. R. Pedler, Koolunga, SA. 77 pp. ISBN 0646188011.

Pocket-sized guide to 70 of the more common species, with very brief plain-English descriptions and notes, and fair-quality colour paintings.

 

Prescott A (1988) It’s blue with five petals : wildflowers of the Adelaide region — an easy to use colour coded field guide. A. Prescott, Prospect, SA.  400 pp.  ISBN 0731639782.

Excellent for the region. Uses flower colour and easily observed floral features in a very non-technical visual key system. RECOMMENDED

 

Prescott A (1995) It’s blue with five petals : Kangaroo Island field guide : wildflowers of Kangaroo Island and the Fleurieu Peninsula. A. Prescott & Associates, Adelaide.  199 pp.  ISBN 0646230611.

About 700 species are briefly treated, with very short descriptive notes and line drawings of diagnostic features. Uses flower colour and easily observed floral features in a very non-technical visual key system. RECOMMENDED

 

Wiltshire D & Schmidt M (1997) Field guide to the common plants of the Cooper Basin, South Australia and Queensland. 3rd edn. Santos Ltd, Adelaide.  124 pp.  ISBN 1875568042.

Covers 50-odd species; brief descriptions and notes, fair-only colour photos and line sketches.

 

Woolcock L (1985) Wildflowers of the Mount Lofty Ranges : Fleurieu Peninsula to Barossa Valley. Wakefield Press, Netley, SA.  186 pp.  ISBN 0958873208.

Brief plain English descriptions and colour photographs. No keys.

 

 

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

 

Note that depending on dates of publication, Flora of Australia volumes may provide more up to date treatments than some State-specific printed resources. See http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/

 

This section lists general cross-family resources, mainly of the ‘plants-of-area’ sort. For additional resources, see other sections of this bibliography (e.g. Weeds, Threatened Species, particular plant groups or habitats, Algae, Fungi).

 

WA Identification service

 

Western Australian Herbarium

http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/wa-herbarium

Phone: Collections Manager, 08 9219 9130; email: herbarium@dbca.wa.gov.au

Street Address: Western Australian Herbarium, Keiran McNamara Conservation Science Centre at the Department of Parks and Wildlife, 17 Dick Perry Avenue, Kensington WA.

Postal: Western Australian Herbarium, Dept of Conservation & Land Management,

Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA 6983.

Scope: native and naturalised flowering plants, bryophytes, lichens, slime moulds and algae.  See website for services not provided.

Charges: Fees apply, but may be waived for specimens  of conservation, veterinary, medical or weed significance.

Submission of plant material: Over the counter (9am-4pm weekdays; for batches of >5 specimens please phone to make an appointment time), or by mail (if properly dried and prepared – see website for guidelines and downloadable inquiry form; prior liaison encouraged).

Self-help:  

  • The Reference Herbarium at the WA Herbarium is accessible to members of the public from 8am-5pm weekdays, except public holidays. Quarantine and other user conditions apply – see website. Microscopes are available, and some computers with interactive identification tools and links to FloraBase and other Internet resources. An extensive set of botanical reference books is also available. The Reference Herbarium contains sample specimens for identification by comparison, with at least one representative specimen for each native and introduced Western Australian vascular plant.
  • Regional Herbaria Network: The WA Herbarium assists a network of over 70 regional community groups to maintain local reference collections of duplicate specimens, which can be consulted by the public. For details and locations see http://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/rhn/

 

 

AGWEST Plant Laboratories (WA Dept of Agriculture and Food)

https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/pest-insects/weed-and-insect-identification

Weed and insect identifications. For inquiry forms and contact details, see website.

 

 

 

WA plant census

 

WACENSUS ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: The WACENSUS database is maintained by the Western Australian Herbarium and is the backbone for the Florabase plant information system (see next). Census inquiries should be directed to the Herbarium – see above for contact details

 

The last printed version of a WA Census was:

Paczkowska G & Chapman AR (2000) The Western Australian flora : a descriptive catalogue. Wildflower Society of Western Australia, Western Australian Herbarium and the Botanic Gardens & Parks Authority, Perth.  652 pp.  ISBN 0646401009.

Lists the 11,922 vascular plant species of WA recognised as at 2000 (so now well out of date), including naturalised exotics. Descriptive information is limited to one or two lines, with brief ecological notes and distribution codes. There are no keys or illustrations.

 

 

WA State Flora/Plant information system

 

Florabase

  • ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE; some interactivity

https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/

 The FloraBase website is the only fully comprehensive ‘flora’ for WA. It covers all native and naturalized vascular plant taxa, and integrates information drawn from:

  • Census of WA Plants – the authoritative listing of native and alien plant names
  • Plant descriptions – a short (sometimes very short) version for each WA vascular plant species, plus comprehensive descriptions of all genera and families
  • Botanical library catalogue
  • Plant images
  • Spatial data – from specimen data and other sources (provides coarse-scale maps)
  • Herbarium specimen database – over 600,000 records

FloraBase interactive keys:

Florabase also includes a growing number of WA-specific interactive identification tools, some in the Lucid system and some in DELTA (software downloads for both may be required – links are provided). 

Tools available as at July 2015 include interactive keys (various authors) to the following:

  • Families of WA plants (in DELTA; on-line tutorial and user-guide provided);
  • Key to genera of WA plants (in DELTA; on-line tutorial and user-guide provided);
  • DELTA keys to WA genera within families (48 families to date);
  • WA species of Goodeniacae, Haemodoraceae, Lamiaceae, Proteaceae, Restionaceae (all in Lucid);
  • WATTLE Acacias of Australia2 (national scope, in Lucid);
  • Australian Tropical Rainforest Key, edition 6 (national scope, in Lucid).

Only the last two of these (both excellent) are here evaluated.

 

 

 

 

 

WA field guides and handbooks – general

 

Blackall WE & Grieve BJ (1979-1998) How to know Western Australian wildflowers: a key to the flora of the extratropical regions of Western Australia. University of Western Australia Pres, Nedlands, WA.  (5 vols.)

  • Part I (2nd) (Dicotyledons: Casuarinaceae to Chenopodiaceae). (1988) 458 pp. ISBN 0855642521.
  • Part II (2nd ed.), [Author as BJ Grieve only] (1998) 731 pp. ISBN 1875560297.
  • Part IIIA (2nd) (1980) 352 pp. ISBN 0855641606.
  • Part IIIB (2nd ed.) (Dicotyledons: Epacridaceae – Lamiaceae). (1981) ISBN 0855641614.
  • Part IV (2nd) with updating Supplement. (1982) 530 pp. ISBN 0855641975.

Now extremely out of date and mainly of historical interest (just occasionally still of use for some families and some regions, if better resources not available).  Keys to genera and species, illustrated with small line drawings which appear rudimentary but often capture diagnostic characteristics very well. Some colour photos in later volumes and editions. The keys are user-friendly. Ridiculously complicated structure, index, and publishing history, including a single-volume of Parts I-III in 1974.

 

Nevill S (2018) Common Wildflowers of Western Australia: 215 Species Illustrated. Woodslane. 28 pp. ISBN 9781921874413

A very introductory overview, covering 215 mostly common species; colour images and plain-English text.

 

Erickson R, George AS, Marchant NG & Morcombe MK (1979) Flowers and plants of Western Australia. Rev. edn. Reed, Sydney.  231 pp.  ISBN 058950116X.

Over 500 species, mostly south-western, shown in good quality colour photos; very little descriptive text, now badly dated.

 

 

WA field guides and handbooks –- the South-West

 

Barrett R & Tay EP (2005) Perth Plants: a field guide to the bushland and coastal flora of Kings Park and Bold Park, Perth, Western Australia. Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority, Perth, WA. 414 pp. ISBN 0876479078.

Comprehensive guide to all 756 species of native and naturalised plants known to occur in Kings Park and Bold Park, organised by family and genus. Very brief descriptive and distributional notes with fair-quality colour photos. No keys to species, but includes a useful quick-guide to families covered, using simple characters and thumbnail photos.

 

Barrett S & Cochrane A (2005) Wildflowers of the Stirling Range.  Department of Conservation and Land Management. 72 pp. ISBN-10: 0730755533; ISBN-13: 9780730755531. [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

Soft cover introductory guide covering a small selection of the species of this very rich area.

[NOT SEEN]

 

Bellairs D & Blake T (1990) Common native plants of Kalbarri and the Murchison Sandplain.  Pioneer Design Studio, Lilydale, Vic.  64 pp.  ISBN 090967437X.

One of a growing series of “Plant identikit”, illustrated pocket sized booklets for various regions.  Moderately useful illustrations of selected species, brief descriptions, and notes on confusable species in the area.

 

Bennett EM & Dundas PJ (1988) The bushland plants of Kings Park Western Australia. Kings Park Publications, Perth.  176 pp. ISBN 073165031X.

Short descriptions and good colour paintings of species in this rich Perth suburban bushland area. No keys. Plant names are dated in some groups due to recent revisions. Fully superseded by Barrett & Tay (2005).

 

Brown A, Keighery G & Thomson C (2006) BookCommon wildflowers of the South-West forests. WA Dept. of Conservation and Land Management. 72 pp. ISBN-10: 0730969606; ISBN-13: 9780730969600.  [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

Paperback pocket-sized beginner’s guide to 33 common wildflower species of the forest areas of the region (e.g. Bibbulmun Track). [NOT SEEN]

 

Collins J (2009) Threatened flora of the Western Central Wheatbelt. Dept of Environment & Conservation, Bentley WA. 160 pp. ISBN 9780730755975. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE (free PDF): http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/images/documents/plants-animals/threatened-species/recovery_plans/wildlife_management_plans/threatened_flora_western_central_wheatbelt.pdf

A rarity-spotter’s guide, with profiles of 70 rare, poorly known or undescribed taxa. Brief descriptions and notes, with distribution maps and good colour photos including detail shots.

 

Corrick MG & Fuhrer BA (2009) Wildflowers of southern Western Australia. 3rd edn.  Rosenberg Publishing, Dural Delivery Ctr, NSW.  224 pp.  ISBN 9781877058844.

Covers 755 species, with short descriptions and distribution notes, and excellent colour photos. Names have been updated from previous editions, but treatments have not been fully revised. Useful nevertheless for the sheer number of taxa included.

 

Craig GF (1995) Native plants of the Ravensthorpe region. Ravensthorpe Wildflower Show Inc., Post Office, Ravensthorpe, WA. 62 pp.  ISBN0646235567.

150 common and conspicuous species (of the 2300 in the area) are grouped by landform of occurrence; fair to good colour photos for each are accompanied by brief descriptions and notes. Some species treated are now defined or named differently, but still useful.

 

Dixon K. (2011) Coastal Plants. A guide to the identification and restoration of plants of the Perth region. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic. 277 pp. ISBN 9780643100473 (pbk), 9780643101753 (epdf), 9780643102224 (epub).

A restorationist’s guide to the 100 most common species of the near-coastal areas of south-western Australia with main focus on the Quindalup dune system between Geraldton and Busselton, but with some applicability as far north as Shark Bay and east to Esperance. Plain language descriptions with good colour photos and notes on pollination, distribution, propagation, and use in restoration. Excellent introductory chapters on the ecology and biology of plants of the region, and on restoration planning and techniques, including collection and use of seed. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: available in e-book form.

 

Erickson R, George AS, Marchant NG & Morcombe MK (1979) Flowers and plants of Western Australia. Rev. edn. Reed, Sydney.  231 pp.  ISBN 058950116X.

Over 500 good quality colour plates; mostly south-western, very little descriptive text, now badly dated.

 

Esperance Wildflower Society (1992-1997) Wildflowers of Esperance. Esperance Wildflower Society, Esperance, WA.  (3 vols.)  ISBN 0646240315 (set).

Vol. 1: 24 pp; ISBN-10: 0646122142; ISBN-13: 9780646122144

Vol. 2: ISBN-10: 0646240323; ISBN-13: 9780646240329

Vol. 3: ISBN 0646323229 [pre-publication; not seen]

Soft-cover booklets with variable-quality colour photos and vestigial text, covering about 330 species.

 

Esperance Wildflower Society [2001]  Wildflowers of Cape Le Grand National Park. Esperance Wildflower Society, Esperance, WA. 81 pp.  ISBN 0957979703.

Covers about 320 local species, with variable quality colour photos and vestigial text.

 

Foss J, Foss P, & Gurry P (2005?) Wildflowers of Dryandra Woodland. WA Dept. of Conservation and Land Management. 72 pp. ISBN 0730755541. [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

Soft cover introductory guide covering a small selection of the species of the Narrogin region.

[NOT SEEN]

 

Fuhrer B & Marchant N (1989) Wildflowers of the Stirling Range. The Field Naturalists Club of Victoria, South Yarra, Vic. 25 pp. ISBN 0959807497.

Covers 140 species, a small proportion of those in the area, with good colour photos and very brief caption information. Now somewhat dated.

 

Ireland A, & Macey K  (2003)  Wildflowers of the northern Bibbulmun Track and jarrah forests: a walker’s field guide.  The Bibbulmun Track Foundation, Perth. 103 PP. ISBN 0975076701.

Long-pocket fieldguide format. Covers almost 300 species, grouped by family, with small fair to good colour photos and minimal descriptive information. Photographed specimens are vouchered but voucher numbers are not cited.

 

Keighery BJ & Longman VM (2002) Tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala) and Tuart communities. Perth Branch Wildflower Society of Western Australia (Inc.). 330 pp. ISBN 0958701148.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE: free PDF: http://www.triggbushland.org.au/images/Tuart_Book_WS.pdf
Not an identification text as such, but contains exhaustive checklists of native and introduced species for twelve different locales of this community that will assist the identification process.

 

Marchant NG, Wheeler JR, Rye BL, Bennett EM, Lander NS & Macfarlane TD (1987)  Flora of the Perth region. Parts 1 and 2 (two vols.). Western Australian Herbarium,, Perth, WA. Part 1: 576 pp, ISBN 0724489665; Part 2: 497 pp, ISBN 0724489827.

Keys and botanical descriptions, some good line illustrations.  Now seriously dated for some groups, but still useful especially for the generic keys.

 

Marshall J [1996?] Wildflowers of the West Coast Hills region. Quality Publishing Australia, [Perth?]  256pp.  ISBN 1875737243.

Covers a selection of species of the Darling Range and Scarp, organised by growth form and with a complex but useful key using growth form and other “easy” characters, plus fair-quality colour photos for some species.

 

Nevill S & McQuoid N (2006) Guide to the wildflowers of south Western Australia. Simon Nevill Publications, Fremantle WA. 156 pp. ISBN-10: 0975601911; ISBN-13: 9780975601914.

Fair to good colour photos of over 900 species, organised by ecological community. Useful if only for the number of taxa illustrated. An update of the 1998 edition (116 pp, ISBN 0958536708),and in turn superseded by Nevill (2019) q.v.

 

Nevill S (2019) Guide to the wildflowers of Western Australia. Simon Nevill Publications, Fremantle WA. 156 pp. ISBN 9781925868036.

An expansion of Nevill & McQuoid (2006) above, but covers 1,150 species over a wider geographic area. [Not seen, publication pending May 2019].

 

Oversby B (2004) Riparian plants of the Avon catchment – a field guide. Dept of Environment, WA. 130 pp. ISBN 1920849858.

Ring-bound A5 folder format, sturdy paper. 59 stream-side taxa are briefly described, with poor to fair colour photos.

 

Rippey E & Rowland B (1995) Plants of the Perth coast and islands. University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands, WA,  292 pp.  ISBN 1875560467.

Brief descriptions and notes of c. 120 species, with line drawings and paintings. Background section on the coastal geomorphology, etc.

 

Scott J & Negus P (2013) Wildflowers of southwest Australia: Augusta – Margaret River region. Cape to Cape Publishing, North Fremantle, WA.  228 pp.  ISBN 9780980333770 (pbk).

500 species organised systematically, with brief descriptions and notes (but no keys), and each illustrated with fair to good colour paintings, plus colour photos of a few eucalypts. Remarkably, WA Herbarium voucher-specimen numbers are given for a majority of the species illustrated – with increasingly available on-line specimen information this will allow users to update their own hardcopy. This is a revised and retitled edition of the (2002) Field Guide to the wildflowers of Australia’s south west: Augusta – Margaret River region.

 

Scott J (2014) Find That Flower: Colour Guide to the Wildflowers of Southwest Australia  2nd edition. Cape to Cape Publishing. 112pp. ISBN 9780980333794.

Covers 304 species including some weeds,with colour images of habit and flowers.

 

Wajon E (1999) Colour guide to Spring wildflowers of Western Australia: Part 1 – Kalbarri and the Goldfields. Wajon Publishing Company, 16 Eckersley Heights, Winthrop WA 6150, email wajonpub@wantree.com.au). 120 pp. ISBN 0646371185.

Guide to more than 220 species, fair- to very good colour photos (mostly of the flowers only), with brief descriptions and notes.

 

Wajon E (2000) Colour guide to Spring wildflowers of Western Australia: Part 2 – Perth and the Southwest. Wajon Publishing Company, 16 Eckersley Heights, Winthrop WA 6150, email wajonpub@wantree.com.au). 120 pp. ISBN 0957781709.

Guide to more than 220 species, good colour photos (mostly of the flowers only), with brief descriptions and notes.

 

Wajon E (2001) Colour guide to Spring wildflowers of Western Australia: Part 3 – Esperance and the Wheatbelt. Wajon Publishing Company, 16 Eckersley Heights, Winthrop WA 6150, email wajonpub@wantree.com.au). 120 pp. ISBN 0957781717.

Guide to more than 220 species, fair to good colour photos (mostly of the flowers only), with brief descriptions and notes.

 

Wheeler J & Chalmers L (1997) Native vegetation of estuaries and saline waterways in south Western Australia. Water & Rivers Commission, East Perth.  32 pp.  ISBN 0730972451.

Useful booklet covering 28 species of emergent and waterside plants. Short descriptions, useful line drawings.

 

Wheeler J & Keighery G (2011) Common trees of the South West Forests. WA Department of Environment and Conservation. 72 pp. ISBN 9781921703140. [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

A revised reprint of Wheeler (1996) ‘Trees of the South West forests’, this paperback booklet covers 32 common tree species, with simple descriptions, colour photos, and line illustrations. Useful general guide for the Bibbulmun Track and adjacent areas. [NOT SEEN]

 

Wheeler J (2007) Wildflowers of the South Coast. Revised edition.WA Dept. of Conservation and Management. (72 pp.) ISBN 0730968480. [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

Paperback, pocket-sized guide to a small selection of species from a very rich area.  This is revised from original 1996 edition. [NOT SEEN]

 

Wheeler J, Marchant NG, Lewington M & Graham L (2002) Flora of the south west: Bunbury – Augusta – Denmark. ABRS; Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Conservation and Land Management, in association with University of Western Australia Press, Canberra, Bentley, WA.  (2 vols.)  ISBN 0642568162 (set).

  • 1: Introduction, Keys, Ferns to Monocotyledons. 471 pp. ISBN 0642568146. 
  • 2: Dicotyledons. 500 pp. ISBN 0642568154.

Simple illustrated keys, species descriptions with good line drawings, arranged by flower colour then by flower and inflorescence form. RECOMMENDED.

 

WA – field guides and handbooks — OTHER REGIONS

(Shark Bay to Kimberley, Mid-West, and eastern inland)

 

Australian Tropical Herbarium & CSIRO Plant Industry (2010) Australian tropical rain forest plants. Edition 6, version 6.1.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: INTERACTIVE. ON-LINE: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/rfk/

This information system runs on the Lucid 3.5 system and Matrix Java Applet – check site for system requirements. The key is easy to use on-line after short familiarisation, even with limited plant material (many characters are available) and leads to very comprehensive species fact-sheets with descriptions and notes supported by good colour images of adult plants, colour scans of juveniles, and many leaf  x-ray images to show venation patterns. The system covers the seed-plants (trees, shrubs, vines, herbs, grasses, sedges, palms, pandans and epiphytes) of the rainforests (including dry scrubs and vine thickets) of northern Australia (north of a line from Broome to Townsville).  RECOMMENDED

For the separate on-line interactive ‘Orchid module of this product, see Jones et al. (2010) Australian tropical rainforest orchids, in Orchid section of this bibliography or go direct to http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/orfk/index.html

 

Chant A (2002) Threatened wildflowers of the Mid-West. WA Department of Conservation and Land Management, Kensington WA. 72 pp. ISBN 0730755193. [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

Introductory pocket guide to a small selection of the many threatened species of the area.

[NOT SEEN].

 

Collins J (2009) Threatened flora of the Western Central Wheatbelt. Dept of Environment & Conservation, Bentley WA. 160 pp. ISBN 9780730755975. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE (free PDF): http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/images/documents/plants-animals/threatened-species/recovery_plans/wildlife_management_plans/threatened_flora_western_central_wheatbelt.pdf

A rarity-spotter’s guide, with profiles of 70 rare, poorly known or undescribed taxa. Brief descriptions and notes, with distribution maps and good colour photos including detail shots.

 

Craig GF (1983) Pilbara coastal flora. Western Australian Department of Agriculture, South Perth.  110 pp.  ISBN 0724495665.

Key to common species of the coastal strip, including those of the mangroves and salt-marshes, with short plain-language descriptions and colour photos. Notes on distribution within and outside the region are given. Includes a chapter on the general ecology of the area. Useful reference for a neglected area.

Datson B (2002) Samphires in Western Australia – a field guide to Chenopodiaceae Tribe Salicornieae. Department of Conservation & Land Management, Perth. 125 pp. ISBN 0730755266.

Plain-English key to species, easy descriptions and notes, with fair to excellent colour photos and line drawings. Includes sections on habitats, pests and diseases, values, seed collection, and useful bibliography and glossary.

 

Daw B, Walley T, & Keighery GJ (2011) Bush tucker: plants of the South-West. [“Revised reprint” of a 1997 original edition]. WA Dept. of Environment and Conservation, Kensington WA. 64 pp. ISBN 9780730968535. [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

Paperback pocket guide to about 30 of the common bush tucker plants used by the Nyoongar people.

 

Erickson TE, Barrett  RL, Merritt DJ, & Dixon KW (2016) Pilbara seed atlas and field guide: plant restoration in Australia’s arid northwest.  CSIRO Publishing, Clayton South, Vic. 295 pp. ISBN 9781486305520 (p’back); 9781486305537 (epdf); 9781486305544 (epub).

Not comprehensive for the area, but describes 103 taxa (no keys) using brief diagnostic descriptions and very good colour photos, and brief ecological notes.  Fruits and seeds are closely described and illustrated for all species, with guidance on maturity times, cleaning requirements, viability rates, and germination requirements. Introductory chapters cover the plant diversity of the Pilbara, seed techniques for seed collection, processing and storage; seed dormancy and germination, and a systematic approach to seed use.  Appendices cover seed dormancy classes and dormancy-breaking techniques, preparation and use of smoke-water for germination, and a checklist of all vascular plants of the region.  An essential handbook for ecological restoration in this region, and a good model for restoration guides in general.

 

Friebe M & Matheson B (2006) Shrubs and trees of the Great Victoria Desert. The Friends of the Great Victoria Desert Parks. 57 pp. ISBN 0646459481.

Descriptions of 50 of the most common shrubs and trees of the region, with brief descriptions and notes and variable quality colour photos. Some bias to the South Australian portion of the GVD but also useful for the WA portion.

 

Greig D  (2002)  A photographic guide to wildflowers of outback Australia.  New Holland Publishers, Frenchs Forest, NSW. 144 pp. ISBN 1864368055.

A handy but very general guide to 250 species of a huge area of the inland, in long pocket format. Small fair-quality colour photos, with very brief plain-English descriptions and notes.

 

Jessop, J (ed.) (1981) Flora of Central Australia. Reed, Sydney.  537 pp.  ISBN 0589502262.

Now dated for some (many?) groups, but still of some use for parts of inland WA south of the monsoon zone and east of Kalgoorlie. Comprehensive keys and botanical descriptions, few line illustrations.

 

Johnston W et al. [2007?] Threatened, poorly known and other flora of Wongan-Ballidu.

Shire of Wongan-Ballidu, Northam, WA / WA Dept of Environment & Conservation. 146 pp. ISBN 9780730755678.

Covers 70 species of the area (50 of them listed as threatened or poorly known), with brief plain-language descriptions, variable quality colour photos, and habitat notes.

 

Keighery GJ (2011) Common wildflowers of the Mid-west. WA Dept. of Environment and Conservation. 72 pp. ISBN-10: 0730976084; ISBN-13: 9780730976080. [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

Paperback introductory pocket guide to a selection of the common wildflowers of the Mid-west region. [NOT SEEN]

 

Kenneally K, Edinger DC & Willing T (1996) Broome & beyond : plants and people of the Dampier Peninsula, Kimberley, Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Como, WA.  256 pp.  ISBN 073096972X.

Introductory sections on the environment, traditional plant usage, botanical exploration, and plant communities, followed by brief descriptions and noteswith excellent colour photos for more than 700 species. RECOMMENDED

 

Kenneally K et al. (2007) Common Plants of the Kimberley. Revised edition. WA Dept. of Environment and Conservation. 72 pp. ISBN13: 9780730968221 [or?] 9780730969938. [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

General-interest pocket guide to about 30 of the more common plant species.

 

Mitchell AA & Wilcox, DG (1994) Arid shrubland plants of Western Australia. 2nd edn. University of Western Australia Press/Western Australian Department of Agriculture, Nedlands, WA.  478 pp.  ISBN 187556022X pbk, 187556047X hbk.

Excellent colour-photo guide to over 200 major tree, shrub and grass species of the WA interior (i.e. not including the South-west); much expanded for this edition. Selective, oriented to the pastoral industry. Each plant illustrated and described, with notes on distribution, habitat and forage value. RECOMMENDED

 

Moore  P (2005) A guide to plants of inland Australia. Reed New Holland. 504 pp. ISBN 9781876334864.

A very useful field guide to about 900 species, albeit over a very large swathe of the continent, with short descriptions and fair-quality colour photos.  Introductory sections outline the evolutionary history of the region and broad vegetation types.

 

Napier D, Purdie J, Alford L & Barritt M (2013) Common plants of Central Australia. Gecko Books, SA. 77 pp. ISBN 9780980852561.

General-interest pocket guide to 37 of the most common species of the region. Good colour photos, brief plain-English descriptions, and notes.

 

Napier J & van Leeuwen S (2008) Common plants of the Pilbara. (Revised reprint of 1996 edition). WA Dept. of Environment and Conservation, Kensington WA. 72 pp. ISBN: 9780730968467. [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

General-interest pocket guide to 32 of the most common species of the region.

Payne K (2003) Native plant guide – Karlkurla Bushland Park & the Goldfields of Western Australia. Kalgoorlie-Boulder Urban Landcare Group. 55 pp.  [No ISBN].

A selection of 64 species, with fair-quality colour photos, short descriptions, notes and maps (no keys). Not remotely comprehensive for the area but a useful local starter guide.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: This was also issued as a CD-ROM with same title (no ISBN).

 

Petheram RJ & Kok B (2003) Plants of the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Rev. edn. University of Western Australian Press, Crawley, WA.  562 pp.  ISBN 1920694048.

Not remotely comprehensive, but a useful handbook for this important area.  Descriptions of about 240 species, organised by growth form, each with a colour photo of varying quality.

 

Pronk G, Keighery G, & Jackson J (2012) Common trees of the Goldfields (revised edition). WA Department of Environment and Conservation, Como WA. 72 pp. ISBN 9780730968610. [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

Introductory pocket guide to common trees of the area. [NOT SEEN]

 

Smith N & Clark M (2014) Pilbara native plants for gardens and landscapes. Greening Australia (WA), Shenton Park WA. 312 pp. ISBN 9780646924731.

As the title implies this is a horticultural guide, and has virtually no descriptive text for the roughly 240 species covered, but it does have good to very good colour photos for each that make it a valuable adjunct to other identoification resources.

 

Tyler JP (1988) The Dampier Salt guide to Pilbara plants for the garden. Dampier Salt (Operations) Pty Ltd, Karratha, WA.  148 pp.  ISBN 0731639871.

Covers about 100 species with brief descriptions and colour photos.

 

Wajon E (1999) Colour guide to Spring wildflowers of Western Australia: Part 1 – Kalbarri and the Goldfields. Wajon Publishing Company, 16 Eckersley Heights, Winthrop WA 6150, email wajonpub@wantree.com.au). 120 pp. ISBN 0646371185.

Guide to more than 220 species, fair- to very good colour photos (usually of the flowers only), with brief descriptions and notes.

 

Wajon E (2008) Colour guide to Spring wildflowers of Western Australia: Part 4 – Exmouth and the Pilbara. Wajon Publishing Company, 16 Eckersley Heights, Winthrop WA 6150, email wajonpub@wantree.com.au). 120 pp. ISBN 9780957781725.

Guide to more than 220 species, good colour photos with brief descriptions and notes.

 

Weakley L (1987) The Society for Growing Australian Plants guide to gardening in the dry tropics. Society for Growing Australian Plants, Townsville Branch, Townsville, Qld.  245 pp.  ISBN 0909830347.

Not an identification guide, but a listing of some 400 native species of horticultural interest, with brief descriptions and some line drawings.

 

Wheaton T (ed.) (1994) Plants of the northern Australian rangelands. Northern Territory Department of Lands, Housing and Local Government, Darwin.  143 pp.  ISBN 0724516352.

Covers 140 toxic, weed, and fodder species, mainly forbs, grasses, and herbs, with some shrubs. Plain-language descriptions and good colour photos.

 

Wheeler JR et al. (eds) (1992) Flora of the Kimberley region. Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management Como, WA.  1327 pp.  ISBN 0730952215.

Standard flora format, keys to families, genera and species, with descriptions at each level; good quality line drawings. Becoming rather dated, missing many recent species.

 

Wheeler J & Keighery G (1997) Wildflowers of Shark Bay. WA Department of Conservation and Land Management, Como WA. 72 pp. ISBN 073096860X. [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

Introductory pocket guide to a selection of about 30 the more common species of the area.

 

Wilkins C, Kern S, Rathbone D & Markey A (2011) Rare and poorly known flora of the Ravensthorpe Range and Bandalup Hill. Dept of Environment & Conservation, Perth WA. 166 pp. ISBN 9781921703119.

A rarity-spotter’s guide, with profiles of 74 rare, poorly known or undescribed taxa. Detailed descriptions with extra notes on the diagnostic features, distribution maps, notes on habitat and conservation status, and useful references, with colour photos.

 

 

 

 

 

 

NORTHERN TERRITORY

 

Note that depending on dates of publication, Flora of Australia volumes may provide more up to date treatments than some State-specific printed resources. See http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/

 

This section lists general cross-family resources, mainly of the ‘plants-of-area’ sort. For additional resources, see other sections of this bibliography (e.g. Weeds, Threatened Species, particular plant groups or habitats, Algae, Fungi).

 

Much traditional Indigenous biocultural knowledge from the Northern Territory (extending into WA in some cases) has been published in a series of books and booklets, mostly in the Northern Territory Botanical Bulletin series. As at July 2015, these have been published for 32 language groups, with 14 more in progress. Many of these have some utility in plant identification (along with a wealth of other knowledge), having good line drawings and in more recent cases good colour illustrations of some of the species treated, but minimal descriptive detail and no keys.  Books in this series are not treated individually here, but see

https://nt.gov.au/environment/native-plants/aboriginal-knowledge-plants-and-animals, or for more details contact Glenn Wightman on 08 8999 4513 or email glenn.wightman@nt.gov.au.

 

 

NT Plant Information system

 

FloraNT: Northern Territory flora online

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE: http://eflora.nt.gov.au.

Maintained by the Northern Territory Herbarium (2015 – ongoing). The system provides checklists and associated identification and information resources for NT plants (native, introduced and naturalised, and Threatened species). Browse by plant name to access fact sheets, PDFs of printed floras (including identification keys), and other information, or use Search functions on any combination of spatial attributes, plant name or plant characteristics including conservation status.  Imagery is uneven as at August 2015, but will soon be supplemented by several thousand further images.  Specimen label information from the NT herbarium is available for each species in abridged form (sheet number, date of collection, and geo-coordinates).

 

 

NT Herbaria with plant identification service

 

Northern Territory Herbarium

http://www.lrm.nt.gov.au/plants-and-animals/herbarium/

The Northern Territory Herbarium provides a plant identification service as well as information and advice on NT flora. These services are free to the public and organisations where the use is for non-commercial purposes; charges may apply in other cases, see website.  Student access by prior arrangement.

There are two locations, with different scopes and contact details:

  • Palmerston, Darwin (main Herbarium): Scope: native, naturalised and cultivated plants of the Northern Territory. Postal: PO Box 496, Palmerston NT 0831. Phone: 08 8999 4516. Email herbarium@nt.gov.au.
  • Alice Springs: Scope: native and naturalised plants of the Centralian region. Postal: PO Box 1120, Alice Springs NT 0871. Phone: 08 8951 8791.

Submission of specimens: See http://www.lrm.nt.gov.au/plants-and-animals/herbarium/identifying-plants for downloadable Identification Serrvice Request form, and for guidelines on how to collect and prepare plant samples for identification. Contact prior to submission is encouraged.

Self-help:  Both the Palmerston and Alice Springs herbaria have public reference collections of native and naturalised plant species (Palmerston also has a cultivated plant reference set). Please make prior booking for access. At Palmerston, internal phytosanitation provisions apply and the reference room must be booked well in advance to allow adequate quarantine of plant specimens, which can take up to one week.

 

Northern Territory plant censuses

 

Northern Territory Herbarium (2014) Northern Territory Plant Checklist – August 2014. Northern Territory Herbarium, NT Department of Land Resource Management.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE (free PDF download): http://www.lrm.nt.gov.au/plants-and-animals/herbarium/plant-species-list-and-fact-sheets

A bare checklist of current names of NT vascular plants, with authors, NT conservation status codes, and flags for NT-endemic and introduced species. Now superseded by FloraNT: Northern Territory flora online (http://eflora.nt.gov.au).

 

Albrecht DE, Duguid AW, Coulson H, Harris MG & Latz PK (2007) Vascular plant checklist for the Southern Bioregions of the Northern Territory: nomenclature, distribution and conservation swtatus. Second Edition. Northern Territory Herbarium, Alice Springs / NT Government, Department of Natural Resources, Environment and the Arts.

262 pp. ISBN 1920772596.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE (free CSV or PDF download): https://nt.gov.au/environment/native-plants/identify-native-plants

A now slightly dated but very comprehensive census for the NT south from about Elliott, with taxa listed in separate checklists: the full information is in the checklist ordered by family first and then alphabetised genera (currently accepted names and authors plus recent synonyms; sub-regional distribution; Territory, Commonwealth and ROTaP conservation codes; and life-form/growth-form information).  This is cross-navigable by a separate checklist ordered alphabetically by genus and species.

 

Older censuses and checklists (now dated and non-comprehensive, but with embedded information that may still be of use):

 

Brennan K (1996) An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory, Australia. Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, Jabiru, NT.  136 pp.  ISBN 0642243085.

Listing of about 1900 taxa, with scientific and common names, coded info as to life form and habitat, and indicators of source and reliability of record. Includes all of Kakadu National Park.

 

Cousin SN (1989) Checklist of vascular plants of the Darwin region, Northern Territory, Australia. Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin.. (Botanical bulletin 8)  54 pp.  ISBN 0724518983.

Names and authors, ordered by family.

 

Liddle DT, Russell-Smith J, Brock J, Leach GJ, & Connors GT (1994) Atlas of the vascular rainforest plants of the Northern Territory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. (Flora of Australia supplementary series no. 3)  164 pp.  ISBN 0642220905.

A distribution census with a considerable amount of tightly coded information about each species; distribution is shown on a map, with source of record, nominated voucher specimens, literature reference, endemism and conservation status, and life-form.

 

 

Northern Territory – Floras and Field Guides

 

Australian Tropical Herbarium & CSIRO Plant Industry (2010) Australian tropical rain forest plants. Edition 6, version 6.1.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: INTERACTIVE. ON-LINE: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/rfk/

This information system runs on the Lucid 3.5 system and Matrix Java Applet – check site for system requirements. The key system is easy to use on-line after short familiarisation, even with limited plant material (many characters are available) and leads to very comprehensive species fact-sheets with descriptions and notes supported by good colour images of adult plants, colour scans of juveniles, and many leaf  x-ray images to show venation patterns. The system covers the seed-plants (trees, shrubs, vines, herbs, grasses, sedges, palms, pandans and epiphytes) of the rainforests of northern Australia – the area of coverage is north of a line from Broome to Townsville.  RECOMMENDED

For the on-line interactive ‘Orchid module of this current product, see Jones et al. (2010) Australian tropical rainforest orchids, in Orchid section of this bibliography or go direct to http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/orfk/index.html

 

Booth R, Harwood RK, & Mangion CP (eds) (2001) Field key for the Monsoon Rainforest Flora of the Darwin Region. Jointly published by Northern Territory University Press; Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory (NT Botanical Bulletin No 28); and Key Centre for Tropical Wildlife Management, Northern Territory University [now Charles Darwin University] (Occasional paper No 2). ISBN-10: 1876248769; 95 pp; ISBN-13: 9781876248765.

Covers about 360 species of native and naturalised vascular plants for the Darwin region, and is useful for this community elsewhere in the NT as well.  This is a key only (no separate species treatments). It uses an ‘artificial’ arrangement, based as much as possible on easy-to-interpret vegetative characters (habit, stems and leaves), with diagnostic line illustrations throughout.

 

Brennan K (1986) Wildflowers of Kakadu : a guide to the wildflowers of Kakadu National Park and the Top End of the Northern Territory. The Author, Jabiru, NT.  127 pp.  ISBN 0958897107.

Selected native species only; excellent colour photos with short caption notes.

 

Brennan K (2007) A field key to the trees and shrubs in the Jabiru area. [Supervising Scientist Report no 187].  Office of the Supervising Scientist, Australian Government. ISSN 1325-1054; ISBN-10: 1921069015; ISBN-13: 9781921069017. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: PDF downloads from:
http://www.environment.gov.au/science/supervising-scientist/publications/ssr/field-key-trees-and-shrubs-jabiru-area

Spiral-bound foolscap; simple keys using mainly vegetative characters; line illustrations and X-ray leaf images.

 

Brock J (2001) Native plants of northern Australia. New Holland, Frenchs Forest, NSW.  355 pp.  ISBN  1876334673.

First published in 1988 by the author as Top End native plants. A guide to 450 species of the area, illustrated with about 700 good colour photos. but does not include grasses and sedges, and the plant names have not been updated since 1993, so use with other more recent resources. Also contains summary descriptions of the vegetation communities.

 

Brown G (2011) Wildlife of the Northern Territory – Volume 2: Top End wildflowers. Charles Darwin University press, Darwin NT. 96 pp. ISBN 9780980864120.

Pocket guide, including 200+ species but with very brief notes and fair-quality photos, mostly of flowers only.

 

Clark M & Traynor S (1987) Plants of the tropical woodland. Conservation Commission of NT, Darwin, NT.  132 pp.  ISBN 0724506632.

Covers 64 species, with brief non-specialist descriptions, with limited notes and pictorially coded information on habitat and uses, with good line drawings.

 

Clifford HT & Cowie ID (1992) Northern Territory flowering plants: a key to families. Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin. (Northern Territory Botanical Bulletin no. 12)  93 pp.  ISBN 0724519432; ISSN 03141810.

The keys to families are divided into dicots and monocots (under the accurate but – for the general reader – confusing names of Magnoliatae and Liliatae respectively) and are very user-friendly; the leads are short and the characters used are mostly easy. The second half of the book lists the families and their diagnostic features.

 

Cowie ID, Short PS & Osterkamp Madsen M (2000) Floodplain flora: a flora of the coastal floodplains of the Northern Territory, Australia. ABRS, Canberra, ACT. (Flora of Australia supplementary series no. 10)  382 pp.  ISBN 0642568081.

Comprehensive flora treatment, with full keys to families, genera and species. Good quality line illustrations. Covers ferns and fern allies, and flowering plants, and fresh water algae (to genus),. RECOMMENDED

 

Dunlop CR, Leach GJ & Cowie ID (1995) Flora of the Darwin region. Vol. 2.  Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin. (Northern Territory botanical bulletin no. 20)  261 pp.  ISBN 0724528911.

This volume (which is companion to vol. 1, Short & Cowie 2011)  is in both hardcopy book form and as an  ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE (free PDFs) at http://www.lrm.nt.gov.au/plants-and-animals/herbarium/darwin_flora_online.  Standard flora format of keys, short descriptions, and brief distributional and ecological information, usefully supplemented by selected  references, good line illustrations, and some good colour photos.  This volume includes the legume families, Proteaceae, Melastomataceae, Combretaceae, Myrtaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Viscacaceae, and a few others. Keys, descriptions, line drawings. Now largely superseded by (and absorbed by) the ON-LINE ELECTRONIC RESOURCE FloraNT (regional floras tab): http://eflora.nt.gov.au/regionalecologicalfloras?region=FDR

 

Greig D  (2002)  A photographic guide to wildflowers of outback Australia.  New Holland Publishers, Frenchs Forest, NSW. 144 pp. ISBN 1864368055.

A handy but very general guide to 250 species of a huge area of the inland, in long pocket format. Small fair-quality colour photos, with very brief plain-English descriptions and notes.

 

Jessop J (ed.) (1981) Flora of Central Australia. Reed, Sydney.  537 pp. ISBN 0589502262.

Now badly dated but still useful for the area south of Newcastle Waters. Comprehensive keys and botanical descriptions, with a few line illustrations..

 

King P (ed.) (1986) Common plants of Central Australia. Northern Territory Government Printer, Palmerston, NT.  64 pp.  ISBN 0724504842.

One of a growing series of “Plant identikit”, illustrated pocket sized booklets for various regions. Moderately useful illustrations and brief descriptions of 42 species, with some notes on confusable species.

 

Latz P (1995) Bushfires and bushtucker : Aboriginal plant use in Central Australia.  IAD Press, Alice Springs, NT.  400 pp.  ISBN 0949659835.

Not primarily an identification guide, but includes descriptions and line drawings (and some colour plates) for 250 plant species, with notes on Aboriginal uses. Also general chapters on climate, ecology, and fire.

 

Latz P (1999) Pocket bushtucker: a field guide to the plants of Central Australia and their traditional uses. IAD Press, Alice Springs, NT.  215 pp.  ISBN 1864650230.

Pocket format, covering almost 200 species, organised by growth form, with short descriptions, notes on ecology and uses, names in several Aboriginal languages, and fair sketch-quality line drawings, with a very few colour photos. The area of geographic coverage is the Northern Territory within a few hundred kilometres of Alice Springs.

 

Moore  P (2005) A Guide to Plants of Inland Australia. Reed New Holland. 504 pp. ISBN 9781876334864.

A very useful field guide to about 900 species, albeit over a very large swathe of the continent, with short descriptions and fair-quality colour photos.  Introductory sections outline the evolutionary history of the region and broad vegetation types.

 

Morcombe M & Morcombe I (1970) Wildflowers of the North and Centre. Landsdowne Press / Periwinkle, Melbourne. 111 pp.  SBN 701804203.

Dating from a time when there were few or no field guides for the NT, this is now a historical interest item only. It covers 83 species with short descriptions and good colour photos.

 

Napier D, Smith N, Alford L & Brown J (2012) Common plants of Australia’s Top End. Gecko Books, South Australia (ph. +61 (8) 8351 1688). 77 pp. ISBN 9780980852523. 

Pocket guide to 37 common or conspicuous species  Short plain-language descriptions and notes; very good colour photos.

 

Napier D, Smith N, & Alford L (2012) Common native plants – Victoria River District and Northern Barkly (the Territory’s Savannah Way). Gecko Books, South Australia (ph. +61 (8) 8351 1688). 77 pp. ISBN 9780980852530.

Pocket-sized guide to 37 common or conspicuous species  Short plain-language descriptions and notes; very good colour photos.

 

Purdie J, Materne C & Bubb A (2008) A field guide to plants of the Barkly region, Northern Territory. Barkly Landcare and Conservation Association (PO Box 36, Tennant Creek, NT 0861). 383 pp. ISBN 9780724571161.

Sturdy spiral-bound guide to a large number of the native and introduced plants of the region, with very brief descriptions and notes (including weediness and toxicity), and fair quality colour photos.

 

Short PS & Cowie IE (eds) (2011) Flora of the Darwin region. Vol. 1. [Northern Territory Botanical Bulletin No. 37, ISSN 0314-1810].  ISBN: 9781921519949 (PDF).

This volume (companion to vol. 2, Dunlop Leach & Cowie 1995) is in a standard flora format of keys, short descriptions, and brief distributional and ecological information, usefully supplemented by selected  references, good line illustrations, and some good colour photos. This volume includes the ferns and allies, gymnosperms, and a variety of angiosperm families.

Now largely superseded by (and absorbed by) the ON-LINE ELECTRONIC RESOURCE FloraNT (regional floras tab): http://eflora.nt.gov.au/regionalecologicalfloras?region=FDR

 

Urban A (1990) Wildflowers and plants of Central Australia. Southbank Editions, Melbourne.  240 pp.  ISBN 0949318035.

Compact field guide, good colour photos with short plain-language descriptions.

 

van Oosterzee P (1995) A field guide to Central Australia : a natural history companion for the traveller. Reed, Chatswood, NSW.  184 pp.  ISBN 0730104796.

General-interest guide to common and noteworthy plants, animals, and landforms. For the plants covered, very short descriptions are given, with adequate to good colour photos.

 

Weakley L (1987) The Society for Growing Australian Plants guide to gardening in the dry tropics.  Society for Growing Australian Plants, Townsville Branch, Townsville, Qld.  245 pp.  ISBN 0909830347.

Not an identification guide, but a listing of some 400 native species of horticultural interest, with brief descriptions and some line drawings.

 

Wheaton T (ed.) (1994) Plants of the northern Australian rangelands. Northern Territory Department of Lands, Housing and Local Government, Darwin.  143 pp.  ISBN 0724516352.

Covers 140 toxic, weed, and fodder species, mainly forbs, grasses, and herbs, with some shrubs. Plain-language descriptions and good colour photos.

 

Wightman G & Andrews M (1989) Plants of Northern Territory monsoon vine forests. Volume 1. Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin.  163 pp.  ISBN 072450687X.

Contains a brief introduction to the floristics, structure and ecology of these important communities, and then one page treatments arranged by growth form (trees, shrubs, climbers, etc). A brief description of each, with habitat and distribution statements, local occurrences, and notes on uses and ecology, accompanied by fair-quality line drawings. No keys, and not comprehensive, now fully superseded by Australian Tropical Herbarium & CSIRO Plant Industry (2010) Australian tropical rain forest plants.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OFFSHORE ISLANDS AND EXTERNAL TERRITORIES

For Bass Strait islands, see under Floras, field guides and handbooks –Tasmania

For Kangaroo Island, see under Floras, field guides and handbooks – South Australia.

For sub-Antarctic islands, see also under Cryptogams – Mosses and Lichens.

 

Flora of Australia series

 

(Various authors; AE Orchard, ed.) (1994) Flora of Australia. Volume 49. Oceanic Islands 1: Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.  681 pp.  ISBN 0644293853 (9780644293853).

This volume covers the native and naturalised vascular plant flora of these two Pacific ocean Islands. Standard Flora treatments with nomenclature, keys, diagnostic descriptions, and brief notes, plus excellent line illustrations. RECOMMENDED,  but be aware that some names have changed and a number of new species have been found – see later works.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE:

https://www.environment.gov.au/science/abrs/publications/flora-of-australia/vol49

The content from FoA vol. 49 is presented here is searchable database form: species lists, keys, generic and species descriptions, and illustrations. 

 

 (Various authors; AS George et al., eds) (1993) Flora of Australia. Volume 50. Oceanic Islands 2excluding Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands.  Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.  681 pp.  ISBN 0644293853.

This volume covers the native and naturalised vascular plant flora of Christmas Is., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Ashmore Reef and Cartier Is. (all in the Indian Ocean), the Coral Sea islands, and the sub-Antarctic Macquarie, Heard and McDonald Islands. Standard Flora treatments with nomenclature, keys, diagnostic descriptions, and brief notes, plus excellent line illustrations.  RECOMMENDED  but be aware that some names have changed and a number of new species have been found – see later works. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE: https://www.environment.gov.au/science/abrs/publications/flora-of-australia/vol50

The content from FoA vol. 50 is presented here is searchable database form: species lists, keys, generic and species descriptions, and illustrations. 

 

Director of National Parks [undated – 2013?] Plants of Norfolk Island National Park and Botanic Garden.  Australian Government.  ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE, free PDF: https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/bed49f1f-1e63-4866-b6eb-18c68f5a05b7/files/plant-brochure.pdf
A brochure with fair-quality thumbnail images and short notes on 29 of the Island’s common, conspicuous, and noteworthy species.

 

Claussen J (2005) Native plants of Christmas Island. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 22. Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). 152pp.  ISBN  9780642568311.

Describes and illustrates with good colour photos 118 of the more common native species, with information on flowering and fruiting times, and a useful 6-page colour guide to drift seeds. RECOMMENDED.

 

Coleman N  (2002)  Lord Howe Island Marine Park – sea shore to sea floor.  Neville Coleman’s Underwater Geographic Pty Ltd, Springwood, Qld.  96 pp. ISBN 0947325271.

Chapters on the algae and seagrasses, with small colour photos and brief notes.

 

Coyne P (2011) Norfolk Island’s fascinating flora. Petaurus Press (PO Box 3296  Belconnen ACT 2617, www.petaurus.com). 192 pp. ISBN 9780980652826.

Covers more than 200 species of native and introduced plants, with brief descriptive, distributional and historical notes and small, fair-quality colour photos.

 

Hutton I (1986) Lord Howe Island. Conservation Press, Canberra.  157 pp.  ISBN 090819840X.

Natural history handbook for the Island, covering plants and animals. Some good colour photos and good line drawings of plants, but dated and less useful as a field guide than Hutton (2010 – see next).

 

Hutton I (2010) A field guide to the plants of Lord Howe Island. Self-publ., Ian Hutton, PO Box 157, Lord Howe Island NSW 2898. 135 pp. ISBN 0958128618.

Excellent pocket-sized field guide, treating 113 of the Island’s 243 species, inlcuding most of the endemic and conspicuous native taxa. Includes a simple key starting with plant form, good colour photos, and plain-English descriptions. RECOMMENDED

 

Hutton I (2010?) A Field Guide to the Ferns of Lord Howe Island. Self-publ., Ian Hutton, PO Box 157, Lord Howe Island NSW 2898. ISBN 0958128677.

[NOT SEEN]

 

Kantvilas G & Seppelt RD [1992, undated] The lichen flora of Macquarie Island: introduction and an annotated checklist of species. ANARE Research Notes 87. Antarctic Division, [Commonwealth] Dept of the Arts, Sport, the Environment & Territories, Canberra.

20 pp. [ISBN 0642182612].

Not an identification guide as such, but like all checklists it narrows the search.

 

Mills K (2009) The vegetation of Phillip Island, Norfolk Island Group. (Report under Envirofund 2007/08). Kevin Mills & Associates, Jamberoo NSW; email kevinmillskma@gmail.com. 179 pp., incl. appendices. [ISBN lacking].

A report on the surviving vegetation of Phillip Island, with a checklist of all species, and profiles of the threatened taxa. See also Mills (2007 Part 6, below).

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE: free PDF: http://www.econorfolk.nf/pdf/Kevin%20Mills%20Report%20Body.pdf . This site contains only the main text of the report (pp. i—71), and unfortunately excludes the six Appendices (checklists of species past and extant, threatened species locations, profiles of significant weeds). Contact the author for these.

 

Mills K (2007-2013) The Flora of Norfolk Island series.  Kevin Mills & Associates, Jamberoo NSW; email kevinmillskma@gmail.com. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, CD/USB only:

Not primarily an identification resource, but able to function as one for many species (mainly via the checklists and photos), this is a series of 18 mixed survey reports and descriptive chapters on the vegetation types and plant species of Norfolk, Phillip and Nepean Islands.  The series is available in whole or in Parts (all part titles are prefixed “The Flora of Norfolk Island”):

  • (2007) 1. The Indigenous Flora.
  • (2007) 2. Epiphytes and Mistletoes.
  • (2007) 3. The Coastal Species.
  • (2007) 4. The Naturalised Species.
  • (2007) 5. Field Survey of the Norfolk Island Endemic Shrub Euphorbia norfolkiana (Euphorbiaceae).
  • (2007) 6. Preliminary Vegetation Survey of Phillip Island.
  • (2007) 7. Endemic and Threatened Species.
  • (2007) 8. Indigenous Plant Species Recorded in Public Reserves on Norfolk Island.
  • (2009) 9. The Vegetation of Nepean Island (incl. Errata and Addenda for Papers 1 to 8).
  • (2010) 10. A Complete List of Indigenous and Naturalised Species for the Island Group.
  • (2010) 11. Field Survey and Assessment of the Critically Endangered Endemic Plant Wikstroemia australis (Kurrajong).
  • (2011) 12. The Plants of Norfolk Island and the Kermadec Islands: Similarities and Differences.
  • (2012) 13. A Photographic Guide to the Seedlings and Saplings of Woody Plants in Norfolk Island National Park.
  • (2012) 14. The Endangered Plants in the National Park: Field Survey and Review.
  • (2012) 15. Plants of the Norfolk Island Botanic Garden: Survey and Assessment.
  • (2012) 16. The Wetland Plants.
  • (2013) 17. The Plants of Norfolk Island: A Bibliography.
  • (2013) 18. The Fern Flora.

 

Pike GD & Leach GJ (1997) Handbook of the vascular plants of Ashmore and Cartier Islands. Parks & Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin, and Parks Australia, Canberra.  156 pp.  ISBN 0724527591.

Outlines of climate and vegetation types on these Indian Ocean islands, then species grouped by life form. Easy descriptions and good line drawings.

 

Seppelt R (2004)  The moss flora of Macquarie Island.  Australian Antarctic Division, Kingston, Tas. 317 pp. ISBN 1876934077.

Keys, descriptions, and good line illustrations of the 845 species of moss on this sub-Antarctic Island.

 

Streimann H (2002) The mosses of Norfolk Island. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. (Flora of Australia, supplementary series no. 16).  178 pp.   ISBN 0642568219.

Covers the island’s 69 known species, with moderately technical keys to genus and species, technical descriptions, excellent line drawings, and a few colour photos.

RECOMMENDED

 

Sykes WR & Atkinson IAE (1988)  Rare and endangered plants of Norfolk Island. Botany Division, DSIRR, New Zealand. 20 pp.  [No ISBN].

Now well-dated, but some species information still valid. Minimalist descriptions, no illustrations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part 2:  RESOURCES FOR MAJOR PLANT GROUPS  AND HABITATS

ACACIA

 

Armitage I (1977) Acacias of New South Wales. Society for Growing Australian Plants NSW Region, Sydney.  200 pp.  ISBN 090983014Z.

Descriptions and line drawings; extremely dated, of historical interest only.

 

Hacker JB (1990) A guide to herbaceous and shrub legumes of Queensland. University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Qld.  351 pp.  ISBN 0702222577.

A very useful guide, covering Fabaceae, Mimosaceae, and Caesalpiniaceae, with keys to genera and species, plus descriptions and distributions; includes toxicity data. Some colour photos of variable quality. Includes a then-comprehensive treatment of the Acacia species by L. Pedley, with key to all species and some colour photos of variable quality.

 

Jackes BR & Townsend K (2013) Wattles of the Burra Range section of the White Mountains National Park. Society for Growing Australian plants, Townsville Branch (email noeltownsend@bigpond.com; PO Box 363, Aitkenvale Qld 4814). 32 pp. ISBN 9780987310965.

Key and illustrations (colour photos and herbarium specimen scans) for 57 species of Acacia and four of Vachellia for this area of North Queensland.  [NOT SEEN]

 

Lithgow G (1997) 60 wattles of the Chinchilla and Murilla Shires. Self-published (G. Lithgow, PO Box 67, Allinga, Chinchilla, Qld 4413. 80 pp. ISBN 0646306065.

Covers a significant part of the western Darling Downs of Queensland. Pictorial key to groups of species (using inflorescence shape), with short descriptions, notes, and excellent line drawings.


Maslin BR & McDonald MW (1996) A key to useful Australian acacias for the seasonally dry tropics. CSIRO,
Collingwood, Vic.  80 pp.  ISBN 0643059636.

Descriptions and excellent colour photos and line drawings of 31 species that have been commonly grown or trialled for wood production or multipurpose use in recent years, with a key. Intended more for identification of plants grown overseas; of limited use within Australia.

 

Maslin BR, Thomson LAJ, McDonald MW & Hamilton-Brown S (1998) Edible wattle seeds of southern Australia – a review of species for arid and semi-arid regions. Dept of Conservation & Land Management WA / CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic. 108 pp. ISBN 0643063110.

Descriptions, good line drawings and colour photos of 47 species of the southern semi-arid zone, with notes on distribution, seed collection, silviculture and food potential.

 

Maslin BR (1998)  Wattles of the Kalannie region – their identification, characteristics and utilisation. Kalannie Land Conservation District Committee / WA Dept of Conservation & Land Management, Perth. 1 x CD-ROM. No ISBN. [For purchase see http://www.worldwidewattle.com/infogallery/publications/kalannie.php, or via Angela Waters,

Kalannie Tree Supplies, c/o PO Kalannie WA 6468, ph (08) 9666 2131]

Interactive information system on CD-ROM for the 70 or so Acacia species of the area; identification key runs on the easy-to-use LucID system; individual species fact-sheets, line drawings and photos, and notes on biology and cultivation incl. for revegetation.

 

Maslin B & van Leeuwen S (2008) Wattles of the Pilbara. WA Dept. of Environment and Conservation. 72 pp. ISBN: 9780730755814. [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

Introductory pocket guide covering 31 (out of 80) species of Acacia found in the Pilbara. See also CD-ROM version, next entry. 

 

Maslin B, van Leeuwen S, & Reid J (2010) Wattles of the Pilbara. WA Dept. of Environment and Conservation. [Now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE – CD-ROM identification key.

A CD-ROM version of Maslin & van Leeuwen (2008) – see above.  [NOT SEEN]

 

Maslin, B.R. (coordinator) (2018) WATTLE, Interactive identification of Australian Acacia. Version 3. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra; Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Perth; Identic Pty Ltd, Brisbane.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE, INTERACTIVE

Access via www.lucidcentral.org (free on-line access). Options available:

  • Web version: Lucid Central lucidcentral.org
  • Android app: Google Play
  • iOS app: Apple iTunes

This key is a revision of the non-Web versions of WATTLE Acacias of Australia (Maslin 2001, 2014: q.v. and the interactive Wattle2 of 2014).  All options run on the user-friendly Lucid system. WATTLE3 includes over c.1300 taxa of Acacia sens. lat. that occur in Australia, including all Acacia sens. str., Acaciella, Vachellia and Senegalia taxa, plus undescribed (phrase name) taxa, and common hybrid entities where these exist in the public domain and are accompanied by a description. Unlike some other Lucid products, this tool is key-only, with no species fact-sheets (yet). Instead, each taxon (except the new species) is hyperlinked to the most current description (sourced from ABRS Flora Online), images (from WorldWideWattle website, q.v.), distribution map (from Australia’s Virtual Herbarium) and nomenclature (from Australian Plant Name Index). HIGHLY RECOMMENDED.

 

Maslin BR (2014) Acacias of Australia. Revised edition. (ABRS Identification Series). Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra / WA Dept of Conservation & Land Management, Perth / CSIRO Publishing. ISBN-13: 9781486302000.

Electronic resource – interactive (web-integrated flash drive); nowlargely superseded by Maslin 2018 Wattle v3 (above). This 2014 version was a fully interactive key running on the user-friendly Web-integrated Lucid Player. The browser also enables access to descriptions and illustrations (including high-quality diagnostic drawings) of nearly 1200 species, subspecies and variants of Acacia in Australia.  This product is a revised edition of Maslin (2001) Wattle : Acacias of Australia. 1 x CD-ROM; ISBN 0643066063), which while dated is also still useful.  This 2014 edition has likewise been superseded to some extent by the fully on-line Wattle2 (Maslin 2014, see above), but remains more than adequate for most situations.

HIGHLY RECOMMENDED

 

Orchard AE & Wilson AJG (2001)  Flora of Australia. Vols 11A, 11B. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra / CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic.

  • 11A. Mimosaceae Acacia part 1. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra / CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic. 673 pp. ISBN 0643067183.

Introductory essays on the family, with keys to genera, and the first half (462) of the species of the hugely important genus Acacia (fully keyed), with many excellent line drawings and a few colour photos. Ideal for use in conjunction with the Wattle CD-ROM (Maslin 2001, q.v.). RECOMMENDED

  • 11B. Mimosaceae Acacia part 2. 673 pp. ISBN 0643067205.
    Contains the remaining 493 species, fully keyed with short descriptions, many excellent line drawings and a few colour photos. Ideal for use in conjunction with the Wattle CD-ROM (Maslin 2001, q.v.). RECOMMENDED

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: Flora of Australia Online: Content of these printed Flora of Australia volumes is available in searchable database form at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/ .

 

Pedley, L (1979) A revision of Acacia Mill. in Queensland. Austrobaileya, vol. 1, no. 2, & vol. 1, no. 3.  (whole issues).  ISSN 0155-4131.

Taxonomic treatment with keys and descriptions. Pedley’s argument for recognition of the Australian acacias as the genus Racosperma is dealt with here. Now fully superseded by Wattle2 (electronic) and the Flora of Australia volumes, see above.

 

Queensland Herbarium  (2006)  Key to the wattles of greater Brisbane. Queensland Environmental Protection Agency. No ISBN.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: Free download,

https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/plants-animals/plants/herbarium/publications
A3 fold-out brochure with a useful illustrated key to more than 30 local species.

 

Rogers FJC (1993) A field guide to Victorian wattles. 3rd edn. La Trobe University Press, Bundoora, Vic.  103 pp.  ISBN 1863240209.

Pocket-sized guide, with a short pictorial key to the six main groups, then brief species-profiles with fair-quality line drawings. Now well out of date.

Simmons M (1981, 198) Acacias of Australia.  (2 vols.)

Vol. 1. Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, Vic.  (327 pp.  ISBN 0170057798; Vol. 2. Viking O’Neil, Melbourne, Vic.  319 pp.  ISBN 0670901245.

Short, non-technical descriptions and line drawings, with a few colour photos; Not comprehensive and now very dated.

 

Simmons MH (2009) Wattles of Tasmania. Marion H Simmons, PO Box 1148, Legana Tas. 7277. 64 pp. ISBN 9780646522883.

A gardener’s guide, with cultivation notes, to 24 Acacia species (out of c. 37) occurring in Tasmania. Plain-english descriptions and fair quality line illustrations.

 

State Herbarium of South Australia (2007-9) Acacias of South Australia. State Herbarium of South Australia, Adelaide. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE (static HTML? Update status uncertain): http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/acacias_sa.html

Formerly a stand-alone webpage, this is now part of the Electronic Flora of South Australia. Digitised standard dichotomous key to the Acacia species of SA, each species linked to a substantial fact-sheet with brief plain-English descriptions, distributional notes and maps, notes on nomenclature, habitat and conservation status, and some rather basic colour photo imagery. Also with an illustrated glossary of morphological terminology for Acacia, and guidance for beginners on how to use the key. RECOMMENDED

 

Tame T (1992) Acacias of southeast Australia. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW.  200 pp.  ISBN 0864174756.

Now rather dated, but good descriptions of 230 species; all are illustrated with colour photos, some of which are rather poor quality. The key to species is quite good and is sometimes easier to use than that in Flora of NSW Vol. 2.

 

Whibley DJE (1992) Acacias of South Australia. 2nd edn. South Australian Government Printer, Adelaide.  328 pp.

Dated, but can still be useful, including for western NSW species.

 

Williams JB & Harden GJ (1979) New England Acacias. University of New England, Armidale, NSW.  9 pp.  ISBN lacking.

A short field key (no descriptions) to the acacias of the region, illustrated with sketch-quality drawings. Now very dated.

 

Wilshire R & Jordan G (2009) TreeFlip: life-sized guide to the trees of Tasmania. School of Plant Science (University of Tasmania) and Cooperative Research Centre for Forestry. ISBN 8186295496

A laminated (field-hardy) map-sized document that folds down to long-pocket size or doubles as an educational poster. Pictorial guide for identification of 30 of the State’s non-eucalypt trees, including some Acacia species. Excellent colour images of leaves, flowers, fruit and bark, plus information on distribution, location and uses.

 

 

AQUATIC (NON-MARINE) and WETLAND plants and algae

For brackish wetlands see also sections of this bibliography on SEASHORE PLANTS and MARINE PLANTS AND MARINE ALGAE.

 

Aston HI (1973) Aquatic plants of Australia. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.  368 pp.  ISBN 0522840442.

Identification guide for native and naturalized species, though now very dated; good line illustrations; distribution maps for Victoria only.

 

Bayes E & Cook D (undated, post-2010) Seasonal herbaceous wetlands – identification and management handbook. Goulburn Broken Catchment and North East Catchment Management

Authorities (Vic.). 102 pp. [ISBN lacking]. Free PDF via https://www.necma.vic.gov.au/News-Events/News/ArtMID/431/ArticleID/182/Seasonal-Herbaceous-Wetlands-Handbook

66 species, mostly grasses, rushes and herbs, many not often featured in other works, with fair-quality colour images and very brief plain-English descriptive notes

 

Beilby G, Shoebridge B, Carland F, Dennis C, & Jackson A (2006) Salt tolerant plants of the Western District RAMSAR lakes. Greening Australia (Victoria) / Australian Plants Society Colac Otway Group. 165 pp. ISBN 0980294002.

Covers 158 indigenous and introduced species, arranged alphabetically by scientific name. No keys. Fair-quality colour photos and short plain-English descriptions and habitat notes.

 

Calvert G & Liessmann L (2014) Wetland plants of the Townsville-Burdekin flood plain. Lower Burdekin Landcare Association Inc., Ayr, Qld.  142 pp. ISBN 9780992580704.

Spiral-bound tough guide, covering 58 aquatic native and introduced water plants commonly found within the region with descriptions,good colour images, and notes on habitat, impacts and uses; plus identification tips for an additional 65 water plants. Free PDF download from http://www.lowerburdekinlandcare.org.au/files/Wetland%20Plants%20of%20the%20Townsville-%20Burdekin%20Floodplain%20WEB.pdf

 

Chambers JM, Fletcher NL & McComb AJ (1995) A guide to emergent wetland plants of south-western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research Laboratory, Murdoch University, Perth.  115 pp.  ISBN 0869054015.

Ring-bound, field-tough, covering 14 common or significant species of rushes, sedge, bullrushes, and one grass. Brief descriptions, notes on biology and propagation, good colour photos.

 

Clarke I (2015) Name those Grasses. Identifying grasses, sedges and rushes.  Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, Vic. 536 pp. ISBN 9780980407648. 

A ‘how to identify’ guide for these groups, rather than a comprehensive species guide, although 206 species are covered as examples, many of them common.  As with Clark & Lee’s (2003) general Name that Flower, this is a fabulous primer for improving your identification skills – in this case in three large groups that are often found intimidating. Illustrated throughout with excellent and well-labelled line drawings that help to decrypt the most difficult characters.

 

Entwisle TJ (ed.) (1994) Aquatic cryptogams of Australia : a guide to the larger fungi, lichens, macroalgae, liverworts and mosses of Australian inland waters. Australian Society for Limnology, Abbotsford, Vic.  (Australian Society for Limnology special publication no. 10)  151 pp.  ISSN 01568426.

Key to the major groups of the title, then keys within each group. Black and white drawings of selected species.

 

Entwisle TJ, Sonneman JA & Lewis SH (1997) Freshwater algae in Australia : a guide to conspicuous genera. Sainty & Associates Pty Ltd, Potts Point, NSW.  242 pp.  ISBN-10: 0646314084; ISBN-13: 9780646314082.

Paperback-sized field and laboratory guide. Easy illustrated key, short descriptions and notes, over 300 high-quality colour micrographs, plus line drawings. RECOMMENDED for field use.

 

Entwisle TJ, Skinner S, Lewis SH, Foard HJ (2007) Algae of Australia: Batrachospermales, Thoreales, Oedogoniales and Zygnemaceae. Algae of Australia Series. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). 200 pp. ISBN 9780643094314.

Documents five families, 14 genera and 210 species and infraspecific taxa of red and green freshwater algae – covers the majority of macroscopic freshwater algae likely to be encountered in Australia. Descriptions of orders, families and genera and species are accompanied by photographs and line drawings, bibliographic lists, and identification keys.  RECOMMENDED.

 

Entwisle TJ & Yee N [undated; c. 2007?] AFA – Australian Freshwater Algae. Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust, Sydney.  On-line acces via: http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/science/Plant_Diversity_Research/australian_freshwater_algae2

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES: ON-LINE, limited interactivity

This site is currently static but contains a number of useful external links and some internal sub-sites of continuing value:

  • Entwisle TJ & Nairn L [undated; c. 2007?] Census of freshwater algae in Australia, (version 1.0). (accessed 22 July 2015). http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/science/Plant_Diversity_Research/australian_freshwater_algae . A database of freshwater algae, searchable on family and genus (geographic search functions appear to be disabled as at June 2015). Species entries show recognised name, map of distribution within Australia, and link to the global Algaebase nomenclatural data. The codes indicating endemism are probably the most dated elements.
  • Yee N & Entwisle TJ ([undated – c. 2007?]. ALGPIC – Quick pictorial identification of Australian freshwater algae. http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/information_about_plants/botanical_info/australian_freshwater_algae2/algpic. Very simple pictorial key (via arrangement by growth form) to genera, with good diagnostic colour photos (mostly micrographs) of a large number of species. Australia-wide in scope. Largely based on Entwisle Sonneman & Lewis 1997, updated.
  • Yee N & Entwisle TJ [undated – c. 2007?]. ALGKEY – Interactive identification of Australian freshwater algae. First release version. http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/science/Plant_Diversity_Research/australian_freshwater_algae/algkey  Australia-wide in scope. This tool requires download and installation of the linked DELTA Intkey installation file and then download of the ALGKEY dataset.  Continuing functionality of these elements has not been confirmed as at June 2015 (user reports welcome). This sub-site also contains a list of all Australian freshwater algal genera (i.e. an unnotated generic checklist) which is static but so far only slightly dated.

 

Falconer R (2004)  Down by the riverside – a field and management guide to native plants in and about the rivers of the Goulburn district, NSW. Goulburn Field Naturalists Society, Goulburn, NSW. 175 pp. ISBN 0959686126.

Good plain-English descriptions and colour photos of 80-odd native riparian species of the area, including a small selection of aquatic and semi-aquatic species.

 

Gell PA, Sonneman JA, Reid MA, Illman MA, & Sincock AJ (1999). An illustrated key to common diatom genera from southern Australia. (Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology Identification Guide No. 26).  Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology, Thurgoona NSW. 68 pp. ISBN 1876144270; ISSN 1321280X.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE: free PDF download. Available at http://www.mdfrc.org.au/bugguide/resources/26-1999-Gell_etal_Key_to_Diatoms.pdf

Allows identification of the genera of Australian freshwater diatoms through a fairly simple key with embedded generic descriptions illustrated with electron micrographs.  The language is kept as simple as the unavoidably technical nature of the process allows; a good glossary is included and critical morphological terms are illustrated  in the introductory section.

[For an additional resource for freshwater diatoms, see also: Anon. (undated: 1999- ?) Australian Diatom Iconograph website (http://artsonline.monash.edu.au/diatoms/), with identification aids of uncertain functionality including micrographs of many Australian species.

 

Grantley J, McPherson F, Petroeschevsky A (2009) Recognising water weeds – plant identification guide. Industry and Investment NSW. 80 pp. ISBN lacking.  Free PDF download from http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/329308/041209-DPI-RWW-PLANT-GUIDE.pdf

Plain-English descriptions, line drawings and good colour photos of 34 freshwater aquatic weeds – a southern temperate emphasis but applicable in subtropics to some degree.

 

Hughes JMR & Davis GL (1989) Aquatic plants of Tasmania.  Department of Geography, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic.  117 pp.  ISBN 0868399957.

Brief descriptions, black and white drawings, and distribution maps.

 

McCarthy PM & Orchard AE (eds) (2007) Algae of Australia: Introduction. Algae of Australia Series, ABRS. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study. 744 pp. ISBN 9780643093775.

Introductory volume to the authoritative Algae of Australia series. Includes essays on the classification of Australian algae, research history, fossil record, systematic relationships, ecology, biogeography and economic significance. Keys to the identification of the orders of algae are accompanied by an extensive bibliography, and 29 synoptic chapters provide an overview of the biology of the algal classes. Also includes colour photographs, line illustrations, and  a glossary of more than 1500 technical terms. RECOMMENDED for the order keys.

 

McGregor GB (2007) Freshwater Cyanoprokaryota of north-eastern Australia 1: Oscillatoriales. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 24. Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS).  124 pp. ISBN  9780642568533.

Cyanoprokaryotes (cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae) of north-eastern Australia (Queensland and NT, although useful down the east coast as far as Sydney). Six families, 27 genera, and 122 species are covered, with keys, morphological decriptions, and ecological information. Photomicrographs and line illustrations of diagnostic features.  RECOMMENDED

 

Mitrovic S (1995) What scum is that? Algal blooms and other prolific plant growth. Department of Land and Water Conservation, Parramatta, NSW.  24 pp.  ISBN 0731023331.

Large-format booklet, with a simple key to commonly blooming freshwater algae, aquatic liverworts, ferns, and some angiosperms. Brief descriptions and illustrations. RECOMMENDED

 

Molonglo Catchment Group (undated – 2010) Glove Box Guide: Waterplants of the A.C.T. region. Molonglo Cathcment Group. 24 pp. ISBN 9780980319774.

Pocket-sized booklet covering about 35 native and introduced aquatic plants, with brief descriptive and habitat notes, including weediness status, and variable quality colour photos.

 

Roberts J & Marston F (2011) Water regime for wetland and floodplain plants – A source book for the Murray–Darling Basin. National Water Commission, Canberra. 170 pp. ISBN 9781921853036. Free PDF downloads of whole document [16.33MB] and chapters at: http://archive.nwc.gov.au/library/topic/environment/water-regime-for-wetland-and-floodplain-plants

More of a guide for management than identification, but twenty key common and important species of the riparian zone and floodplain (a mix of trees, one shrub, four grasses, six sedge/rush, and a couple of herbs) are profiled in great detail, with good photos and lots of ecological and management information.

 

Romanowski N (1998) Aquatic and wetland plants : a field guide for non-tropical Australia. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, NSW.  119 pp.  ISBN 0868406325.

Useful field guide to families and genera, and in many cases (c. 340) down to species, both native and naturalised. Short plain-English descriptions, and fair-quality colour photos.

 

Romanowski N (2011) Wetland weeds: causes, cures and compromises. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic. 140 pp. ISBN 9780643103955 (pbk), 9780643103962 (epdf), 9780643103979 (epub).

130 native and introduced species, with notes on biology, origin, confusable species, environmental effects, and control/management. Variable quality colour photos for many species.

 

Sainty GR & Jacobs SWL (2003) Waterplants in Australia. 4th edn. Sainty & Associates Pty Ltd, Potts Point, NSW.  416 pp.  ISBN 0958105510.

A pocket-sized field guide to 150 common and noxious species of aquatic and wetland vascular plants, charophytes, and blue-green algae. Good colour photos and line drawings for each species, with dot-pointed and diagrammatically coded descriptive information and notes. Includes chapters on waterplant management, willow impacts and control, and wetland classification. Not comprehensive but RECOMMENDED as a field guide.

Sainty G, Hosking J,  Carr G, & Adam P (eds.) (2012) Estuary plants and what’s happening to them in south-east Australia. Sainty & Associates (www.sainty.com.au). 652 pp. ISBN 0958105538.

First half of the book is a field guide to estuarine areas with some applicability to adjacent freshwater wetlands (i.e., some species overlap between these biomes). No keys, but excellent colour photos and good plain-language descriptions.

 

Skinner S [2010] Teach yourself: Conspicuous algal growth in waterways. A technique for field characterising conspicuous algal growth in urban and rural waterways. Molonglo Catchment Waterewatch (Queanbeyan NSW), and  ACT Government.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE, free PDF: large file, 8.5MB.

Very simple and informative field guide using cover-density, colour, texture, smell and growth form: these characteristics allow identification (to family and genus level only) of freshwater non-vacular plants and ‘related’ groups: green algae, one red alga, diatoms, and cyanobacteria. The main geographical area of coverage is the NSW Southern Tablelands, but it is useful for much of SE Australia.  Presented as PDFs of powerpoint slides, well illustrated with macro- and micrograph images. RECOMMENDED for simplicity.

 

Stephens KM & Dowling RM (2002) Wetland plants of Queensland : a field guide. CSIRO, Collingwood, Vic.  146 pp.  ISBN 0643066748;also available as EBook ePDF ISBN9780643101449..

Describes and illustrates 90 common species, with keys to genera and species (including species not covered in detail); fair-quality colour photos, notes, and distribution maps.

 

Wheeler J & Chalmers L (1997) Native vegetation of estuaries and saline waterways in south Western Australia. Water & Rivers Commission, East Perth.  32 pp. ISBN 0730972451.

Useful booklet covering 28 species of emergent and waterside plants. Short descriptions, useful line drawings.

 

Wilson A (ed.) (2011) Flora of Australia. Volume 39 – Alismatales to Arales. Flora of Australia Series. Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS) / CSIRO Publishing. 320 pp. ISBN: 9780643104235 hbk, 9780643104242 pbk.

This volume of the Flora of Australia series covers 17 families (76 genera and 256 species), most with a high proportion of aquatic, semi-aquatic, or strand species: Limnocharitaceae, Alismataceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Aponogetonaceae, Juncaginaceae, Potamogetonaceae, Ruppiaceae, Najadaceae, Zannichelliaceae, Posidoniaceae, Cymodoceaceae, Zosteraceae, Triuridaceae, Arecaceae, Pandanaceae, Araceae, and Lemnaceae. Keys to genera and species, nomenclature, descriptions, distribution statement and map, and habitat information. RECOMMENDED.

 

 

ASTERACEAE (Daisies)

 

Note:  For such a conspicuous and numerous group, the Australian daisies have been poorly documented in book form outside of general Floras. There is much active research and reclassification, and the first of three Flora of Australia volumes on the family (Wilson ed., 2015) reflects this. Pending the remaining Flora of Australia treatments, the best identification sources, for both native and naturalised species, are the State and regional flora treatments (especially Bean et al. below for South Australia) and the better general handbooks listed elsewhere, or specialist papers in journals – consult your nearest Government herbarium.

 

Barker J et al. (2002) Everlasting daisies of Australia: identification, propagation, cultivation. CH Jerram & Associates/R.G. & F.J. Richardson, Meredith, Vic.  196 pp.  ISBN  0958743967.

Produced by the Australian Daisy Study Group and primarily about cultivation of some native genera. However, it does include a useful identification section containing keys to 12 genera and their species, with descriptions, notes, and superb quality colour photos (including the all-important fruit characters for many species). Recent revisions have rendered some of the names and circumscriptions out of date, but it can still be of use by cross-referencing to other resources for currently recognised names. The genera covered are Bellida, Bracteantha, Cephalipterum, Chrysocephalum, Haptotrichion Hyalosperma, Ixodia, Lawrencella, Leucochrysum, Rhodanthe, Schoenia and Waitzia.

 

Bean AR, Cooke DA, Holzapfel S, Scarlett N & Thompson IR (2014) Asteraceae (Compositae) (partly), version 1. In: Kellermann, J. (ed.), Flora of South Australia (edition 5). www.flora.sa.gov.au/ed5. (State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide). 60 pp. ISBN lacking.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE: free PDF:

As at July 2015, this interim version of the Flora of South Australia chapter on Asteraceae only covers the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae (formerly Lactuceae), Helenieae and Tageteae. Other groups are in preparation, as well as more illustrations, and will be published once finalised

Standard flora treatment. Full keys to genera and species, short descriptions, distributions, conservation status, very brief general notes, and good diagnostic line illustrations. RECOMMENDED

 

Salkin E et al. (1995) Australian Brachyscomes. Australian Daisy Study Group, Vic.  271 pp.  ISBN 0646250795.

Introductory overview of the genus, followed by short descriptions, notes, and good line drawings of 74 species, plus selected varieties and cultivars. Comes with an excellent poster-sized sheet showing comparative fruit morphology. May still be available from the Study Group.

 

Schaumann M, Barker J & Greig J  (1987) Australian daisies for gardens and floral art. Lothian, Melbourne.  223 pp.  ISBN 0850912911.

Mainly a horticultural guide, but with simple descriptions and good line illustrations of 62 often-cultivated species, together with horticultural information and notes on preservation for floral art and arrangements. The scientific names are dated.

Wilson A (ed.) (2015) Flora of Australia volume 37: Asteraceae 1. Flora of Australia Series. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study. 664 pp. ISBN  9781486304158 hbk; 9781486304165 pbk.

First of three Asteraceae volumes in the series.  This volume presents an introduction to the family in Australia, including a synoptic classification and keys, and overview treatments of all the tribes represented in Australia, with the exception of the large tribes Gnaphalieae and Astereae, each of which will be the subject of a future volume of the Flora. Nineteen tribes, 233 genera and 518 species are treated in detail in this volume, of which the majority are introduced (only 47 genera include native species).

RECOMMENDED

 

 

BOTTLE-BRUSHES – see MYRTACEAE

 

 

CALLISTEMON – see Myrtaceae

 

 

CARNIVOROUS PLANTS

 

Bourke G & Nunn R (2012) Australian carnivorous plants. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole, Dorset, UK (www.redfernnaturalhistory.com). 197 pp. ISBN 9781908787026.

Not an identification guide as such, but the gorgeous colour photos show most of the nearly 200 native carnivorous species across six genera.

 

Lowrie A (1987, 1989, 1998) Carnivorous plants of Australia. University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands, WA.  (3 vols.)

Vol. 1 (1987): 200 pp.,  ISBN 0855642548; Vol. 2 (1989): 202 pp., ISBN 0855643005; Vol. 3, (1998): 288 pp., ISBN 1875560599.

Vol. 1 includes tuberous Drosera; Vol. 2 includes pygmy Drosera, Vol. 3 includes Utricularia, Aldrovanda, Cephalotus, Drosera, Byblis, and Nepenthes. Volume 3 also includes keys to species covered by all three volumes. Descriptions, good line illustrations, maps, and some colour photos. Somewhat dated.

McPherson S & Robinson A (2012) Field guide to the pitcher plants of Australia and New Guinea. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole, UK. 59 pp. ISBN-10: 1908787074; ISBN-13: 9781908787071.

Covers all known Australian members of the genus Nepenthes, and the monotypic Cephalotus. No keys, but good plain-language descriptions and very good colour photos.

 

Northern Territory Herbarium (2013) The genus Utricularia in the Northern Territory.

Northern Territory Herbarium, NT Department of Land Resource Management.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE: free PDF: https://www.greeningaustralia.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Howard-Sands-Utricularia-in-NT.pdf

Brief background information on the genus, and a key to the species occurring in the NT.

 

 

CASUARINACEAE (She-Oak family)

 

Wilson KL & Johnson LAS  Casuarinaceae in George, AS (exec. ed.) (1989) Flora of Australia. Vol. 3. Hamamelidales to Casuarinales. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 219 pp. ISBN0644084995.

National treatment of the family, only slightly dated. Keys, descriptions, and many line drawings of the diagnostic features. RECOMMENDED

 

 

 

CHENOPODIACEAE  (Salt-bush family)

 

Many regional FLORAS & GENERAL FIELD GUIDES for the semi-arid zone also have up to date treatments of this family.

Note re stem-succulent species of Chenopodiacae (both coastal and inland): Identification in this group of chenopods can be hampered by difficulties in interpreting floral structures.  A well-illustrated aid to understanding these features is the journal paper:

  • Wilson PG (1980) A revision of the Australian species of Salicornieae (Chenopodiaceae). Nuytsia 3(1): 3–154.

Nuytsia journal is published by the Western Australian Herbarium.  Unfortunately this paper is not currently (Aug. 2015) available on-line.  It also needs to be used carefully – while the illustrations and explanation of terms are valid, and the key remains very useful, many of the species names themselves are out of date, having since been transferred into the genus Tecticornia.  The new names are presented (again with some useful illustrations) in a second paper:

  • Shepherd KA & Wilson PG (2007) Incorporation of the Australian genera Halosarcia, Pachycornia, Sclerostegia and Tegicornia into Tecticornia (Salicornioideae, Chenopodiaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 20(4): 319–331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SB07002.

Use of these two journal papers in tandem for the stem-succulent species is recommended.

 

Datson B (2002) Samphires in Western Australia – a field guide to Chenopodiaceae Tribe Salicornieae. Department of Conservation & Land Management, Perth. (125 pp.) ISBN 0730755266.

Plain-English key to species, easy descriptions and notes, with excellent colour photos and line drawings. Includes sections on habitats, pests and diseases, values, seed collection, and useful bibliography and glossary.

 

Wilson PG (1984) ‘Chenopodiaceae’  in George AS (exec. ed.), Flora of Australia vol. 4 : Phytolaccaceae to Chenopodiaceae.  Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 354 pp.  ISBN 0644034424.

Somewhat dated, but still the only national conspectus of this important family.  Contains identification keys and short descriptions for all 302 species known at the time, with small distribution maps, brief notes, many excellent line drawings of the diagnostic features, and some colour photos. RECOMMENDED but in tandem with more recent work including journal papers.  See also note below re stem-succulent species.

 

Wilson PG & Chinnock RJ (2013) Chenopodiaceae (version 1). In: Kellermann J (ed.), Flora of South Australia (edition 5). State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide. www.flora.sa.gov.au/ed5. 111 pp. ISBN lacking.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE: free PDF:

Standard flora treatment of the family as it occurs in South Australia.  Full keys to genera and species, short descriptions, distributions, conservation status, very brief general notes, and good diagnostic line illustrations. RECOMMENDED

 

 

CLIMBING PLANTS

See also under RAINFOREST PLANTS.

 

Australian Tropical Herbarium & CSIRO Plant Industry (2010) Australian tropical rain forest plants. Edition 6, version 6.1.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: INTERACTIVE. ON-LINE at http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/rfk/

This information system is an updated version of one developed by Hyland et al. (2003), but much expanded and on up-to-date software (Lucid 3.5 system and Matrix Java Applet – check site for system requirements). The key system is easy to use on-line after short familiarisation, even with limited plant material (many characters are available) and leads to very comprehensive species fact-sheets with descriptions and notes supported by good colour images of adult plants, colour scans of juveniles, and many leaf  x-ray images to show venation patterns. The system covers the seed-plants (trees, shrubs, vines, herbs, grasses, sedges, palms, pandans and epiphytes) of the rainforests of northern Australia – the area of coverage is north of a line from Broome to Townsville, but is also useful further south in Queensland (eventual extension to fully cover the area between Townsville and Rockhampton is anticipated; south from Rocky is covered by Harden et al. (2015).  For further background see Zich & Kerrigan (2016) in Australasian Plant Conservation 25(1): 10-12. RECOMMENDED

Earlier versions issued in various formats but now out of ‘print’ (e.g. 2 CD-ROMS + booklet from CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic ISBN-10: 9643068724; ISBN-13: 9780643068728) have significantly less coverage in area and growth forms, but may still be useful.

For the on-line interactive ‘Orchid module’ of this current product, see Jones et al. (2010) Australian tropical rainforest orchids, in Orchid section of this bibliography or go direct to http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/orfk/index.html

 

Harden G, Nicholson H, McDonald B, Nicholson N, Tame T & Williams J (2014) Rainforest plants of Australia – Rockhampton to Victoria. Gwen Harden Publishing, P.O. Box 186, Nambucca Heads NSW 2448; http://rainforests.net.au/).

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, INTERACTIVE – USB.

This inexpensive and comprehensive interactive key and information system runs on the user-friendly Lucid software, on Windows or Mac. It covers 1139 species of trees, shrubs, mistletoes, and climbing plants, with over 11,000 excellent images. Each taxon has a fact sheet describing and illustrating (with enlargeable images) the general and diagnostic features of habit, bark, leaves, flowers and fruit, plus distribution data, habitat (including rainforest type), native/exotic status, and conservation listing status. This is now the tool of choice for rainforest species identification in mainland eastern Australia south of Rockhampton and inland to the dry vine thicket communities.

 

Jones DL (1988) Climbing plants in Australia. Reed, Frenchs Forest, NSW.  392 pp.  ISBN 0730101185.

Describes many native and exotic species rarely written up elsewhere; also cultivation notes, and colour photos of most species.

 

Williams JB & Harden GJ (1984) Rainforest climbing plants : a field guide to the rainforest climbing plants of New South Wales using vegetative characters. Rev. edn. University of New England, Armidale, NSW.  47 pp.  ISBN 0858342936.

A field guide to NSW species. Vegetative character keys, and line drawings of each species. Now dated but still usable.

 

 

 

 

 

CRYPTOGAMS

 

This section covers Lichens, and the two groups of Bryophytes: Mosses and Hepatics (liverworts and hornworts).

Some of the listed works also cover some fungi and algae, which are often also termed cryptogams, but for the most part identification resources for those two groups are in the separate sections for FUNGI & SLIME-MOULDS,  AQUATIC (NON-MARINE) AND WETLAND PLANTS AND ALGAE, and MARINE PLANTS AND MARINE ALGAE.

See also separate section for FERNS, which are sometimes termed cryptogams in older works.

 

 

CRYPTOGAMS — LICHENS

 

Flora of Australia lichen series and supplementary publications:

 

George AS (Exec. ed.) (1992) Flora of Australia. Volume 54. Lichens – Introduction, Lecanorales 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.  348 pp.  ISBN 064424061X (9780644249706).

First of six volumes in this series. This volume contains introductory chapters on the history of Australian lichenology, physical structure of lichens, photobionts, chemistry, ecology and biogeography, uses, and collection techniques. These are followed by a systematic schema (down to generic level), keys to all the Australian genera, and the first few treatments (including Lecanorales, in part).  RECOMMENDED

 

Orchard AE (ed.) (1994) Flora of Australia. Volume 55: Lichens – Lecanorales 2, Parmeliaceae. CSIRO, Canberra.  360 pp.  ISBN 0643056769.

This continues the lichens from Volume 54, with Lecanorales 2 to Parmeliaceae. Keys to genera and species, short descriptions, and distributional information. RECOMMENDED

 

McCarthy PM & Mallett K (eds) (2004) Flora of Australia. Volume 56A:  Lichens 4. Flora of Australia Series. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). 240 pp. ISBN  9780643090569  hbk, 9780643090576 pbk.

This volume of the series provides treatments (keys, descriptions and distributional data) for nine families (17 genera, 287 species and infra-specific taxa). These include the genera Pertusaria and Lecanora, two of the most species-rich crustose genera on rock and bark in Australia, and the widespread and often conspicuous genus Usnea.  RECOMMENDED

 

McCarthy PM (ed.) (2009) Flora of Australia. Volume 57:  Lichens 5. Flora of Australia Series. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). 708 pp. ISBN  9780643096646 pbk, ISBN 9780643096653 hbk.

Provides complete or partial accounts (keys, descriptions and distributional data) for 21 families, including several northern Australian epiphytic families (Graphidaceae, Phyllopsoraceae, Pyrenulaceae, Thelotremataceae and Trypetheliaceae), plus genera Dirinaria, Letrouitia, Pyxine and Strigula for the same region, and the more widely distributed Buellia s. str., Lepraria, Ramboldia and Tephromela. Also included are some mainly southern and cool-temperate genera such as Nephroma, Peltigera, Thelocarpon and Umbilicaria.  RECOMMENDED

 

McCarthy PM  (2001)  Flora of Australia. Vol. 58A.  Lichens 3.  CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic. / Australian Biological Resources Study. 264 pp. ISBN 0643067132, or 9780643067127.  ABRS/CSIRO, Canberra.

Covers the families Lobariaceae and Sphaerophoraceae from cool-temperate SE Australia; the soil inhabiting groups Peltulaceae, Endocarpon and Placidium, semi-arid regions; and families of crustose lichens, Verrucariaceae and Trichotheliaceae.  RECOMMENDED

 

McCarthy PM  (2003) Catalogue of Australian lichens. Flora of Australia supplementary series no 19. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.  237 pp.  ISBN-10: 0642568278; ISBN-13: 9780642568274; ISSN 13232669 (series).

Not an identification book but a then-comprehensive listing of the genera and species, the primary literature, and distribution by State. Now superseded by the Flora of Australia volumes, see above.

 

McCarthy PM & Malcolm, WM (2004)  Key to the genera of Australian macrolichens. Flora of Australia Supplementary series No 23. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. 45 pp. ISBN-10: 0642568340; ISBN-13:  9780642568342; ISSN 13232169 (series).

A necessarily technical key to all 135 genera of non-crustose lichens, with an emphasis on features observable with a simple hand-lens. Excellent colour photos of exemplar species.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE: free PDF: www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/lichenlist/Macrolichens.pdf

 

McCarthy PM (2015) Checklist of Australian lichenicolous fungi. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Version 1 July 2015.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: On-line: http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/lichenlist/Lichenicolous_Fungi.html

A list of taxa (alphabetical by genus) giving author, place of publication, distribution by State, and details of host.

 

 

Other handbooks and field guides on lichens:

 

Eldridge D & Tozer M (1997)  A practical guide to soil lichens and bryophytes of Australia’s dry country. NSW Dept of Land & Water Conservation, Sydney, NSW. 80 pp. ISBN 0731303024.

An excellent general guide to the organic soil-crusts of the Australian rangelands, with a view to their use as indicators of land and soil condition. The main groups involved – lichens. mosses, hepatics, and cyanobacteria, are discussed, with a brief and easy key to assign samples to them. The more conspicuous genera are described and illustrated with excellent colour photos. RECOMMENDED

 

Entwisle TJ (ed.) (1994) Aquatic cryptogams of Australia:- a guide to the larger fungi, lichens, macroalgae, liverworts and mosses of Australian inland waters. Australian Society for Limnology, Abbotsford, Vic. (Australian Society for Limnology special publication no. 10)  151 pp.  ISSN 0156-8426.

Key to the major groups of the title, then keys within each group. Black and white drawings of selected species.

 

Filson RB & Rogers RW (1979) Lichens of South Australia.  South Australian Government Printer, Adelaide.  (Handbook of the flora and fauna of South Australia)  197 pp.

Keys to, and descriptions of, arid area lichens with introductory notes on lichen structures and ecology. Some illustrations.

 

Jackes BR (1990) Plants of the tropical rainforest : Mt Spec area, North Queensland.  Botany Department, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld.  81 pp.  ISBN 086443359X.

Guide to identification of the trees, shrubs, vines, folliicolous lichens, bryophytes, and ferns of the Mt Spec – Paluma Range area. Few illustrations, but good exhaustive keys. Foolscap format.

 

Kantvilas G & Seppelt RD [1992, undated] The lichen flora of Macquarie Island: introduction and an annotated checklist of species. ANARE Research Notes 87. Antarctic Division, [Commonwealth] Dept of the Arts, Sport, the Environment & Territories, Canberra.

20 pp. [ISBN 0642182612].

Not an identification guide as such, but like all checklists it narrows the search.

 

Kantvilas G & Jarman SJ (1999) Lichens of rainforest in Tasmania and south-eastern Australia. ABRS, Canberra. (Flora of Australia supplementary series no. 9)  212 pp.  ISBN  0642568022.

Excellent colour photos of 127 macrolichen species, with brief notes, and a good key with minimal specialist terminology.  Good background chapters and glossary. RECOMMENDED.

 

Kantvilas G, Elix JA & Jarman SJ (2002) Tasmanian lichens – identification, distribution and conservation status. I Parmeliaceae. Australian Biological Resources Study and the Tasmanian Herbarium, Canberra and Hobart. (Flora of Australia supplementary series no. 15)  274 pp.  ISBN 064268200.

Keys to the genera and species of Parmeliaceae, with species notes and distribution (records) maps for the state. Some species are illustrated with black and white photos.

 

Lumbsch HT, McCarthy PM, & Malcolm WM  (2001)  Key to the genera of Australian lichens – apothecial crusts. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra (ABRS Supplementary Series No 11). 64 pp. ISBN 0642568138.

A key to the group, with good colour photos and lists of references; lacks a glossary for the necessarily complex terminology, so may best used in conjunction with other works.

 

McCarthy PM (2015 – ongoing?) Checklist of the Lichens of Australia and its Island Territories. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Version 1 July 2015.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE:

http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/lichenlist/introduction.html

The checklist at the core of this site covers classification, genus descriptions, profiles of the largest families and genera, links to PDFs of genus and species treatments and keys, and sub-checklists of foliicolous and aquatic lichens, and those of the arid and semi arid regions and oceanic islands.  In addition the site links to PDFs of journal papers on selected familes and genera and a large set of line and colour photo illustrations (many of the latter sorted into regional photo lists), plus a PDF Elix’s (2014) self-published Catalogue of standardized chromatographic data and biosynthetic relationships for lichen substances, a key resource for the biochemical tools necessary for precise identification of many lichens.

 

Rogers RW (1981) The genera of Australian lichens (lichenized fungi).  University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Qld.  124 pp.  ISBN 0702215791.

Catalogue of the genera in Australia, with keys to genera, generic descriptions, and references. No diagrams.

 

Rogers, R.W. (2016). The Lichens of Subtropical Queensland. [3rd edition?] [Self-publ.?] 185 pp. ISBN lacking. PDF free download via https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/plants-animals/plants/herbarium/publications

Includes keys, descriptions and some images of lichen species found in the subtropics of Queensland, with introductory material on lichen biology and identification characters.  Full keys to major groups, genera, and species. Includes some species not captured in the Flora of Australia series. From the preface: “This set of keys is written to help the identification of lichens from subtropical Queensland. The keys will be useful generally along the coastal and arid zones of eastern Australia – but not the rainforests of the tropical north or the alpine-subalpine areas”. This is an update of Rogers RW (2010) Keys to the lichens of sub-tropical Queensland. Version 2.3 (153 pp., issued in comb-bound A4 format).

 

 

CRYPTOGAMS — MOSSES

 

On-line Moss information systems:

 

McCarthy PM (ed.) (2012-ongoing) Australian mosses on-line. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE: http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/Mosses_online/

This website is a work in progress, but already includes authoritative taxonomic treatments of the many families and genera of the moss flora by a variety of authors, some from the Moss volumes of the Flora of Australia. All have keys and descriptions, and varying levels of illustration. The site also includes (as a stand-alone PDF) the Key to the Genera of Australian Mosses by Buck & Vitt (from McCarthy (ed) (2006) Flora of Australia vol. 51 – see below. RECOMMENDED

 

Klazenga N [ongoing] AUSMOSS – Catalogue of Australian mosses.  Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE searchable database.

Not an identification system, but this comprehensive database of Australian moss names allows search and browse on currently recognised names or synonyms, and generates reports with citation of nomenclatural references, distribution statement and map, and some external links to more information. It supersedes the catalogues of Streimann & Klazenga (2002) and Streimann & Curnow (1989).

 

Other Moss resources:

 

Beever J, Allison, KW & Child, J (1992) The mosses of New Zealand. 2nd edn. University. of Otago Press, Dunedin, NZ.  214 pp.  ISBN 0908569521.

Keys to, and descriptions of, the NZ species, many of which also occur in Tasmania and the cooler and higher areas of the Australian mainland.

 

Buck WR, Vitt DH & Malcolm WM (2002). Key to the genera of Australian mosses. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. (Flora of Australia supplementary series no. 14)  120 pp.  ISBN 0642568197.

Ring-bound and field-hardy, with a fairly technical key; well-illustrated with excellent colour photographs and micrographs. For a decade the field-guide of choice for identification to generic level, this is now superseded by a revised key of the same title by Buck & Vitt in McCarthy (ed) (2006), Flora of Australia vol. 51, see below, which is also available as a stand-alone PDF at Australian mosses on-line (http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/Mosses_online/).

 

Catcheside DG (1980) Mosses of South Australia. South Australian Government Printer, Adelaide. (Handbook of the flora and fauna of South Australia)  364 pp.

Keys and descriptions of species; well-illustrated and useful, particularly in arid areas.

 

Eldridge D & Tozer M (1997)  A practical guide to soil lichens and bryophytes of Australia’s dry country. NSW Dept of Land & Water Conservation, Sydney, NSW. 80 pp. ISBN 0731303024.

An excellent general guide to the organic soil-crusts of the Australian rangelands, with a view to their use as indicators of land and soil condition. The main groups involved – lichens. mosses, hepatics, and cyanobacteria are discussed, and a brief and easy key provided to assign samples to them; the more conspicuous genera are described and illustrated with excellent colour photos.  RECOMMENDED

 

Entwisle TJ (ed.) (1994) Aquatic cryptogams of Australia:- a guide to the larger fungi, lichens, macroalgae, liverworts and mosses of Australian inland waters. Australian Society for Limnology, Abbotsford, Vic. (Australian Society for Limnology special publication no. 10)  151 pp.  ISSN 0156-8426.

Key to the major groups of the title, then keys within each group. Black and white drawings of selected species.

 

Jackes BR (1990) Plants of the tropical rainforest : Mt Spec area, North Queensland.  Botany Department, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld.  81 pp.  ISBN 086443359X.

Guide to ID of the trees, shrubs, vines, folliicolous lichens, bryophytes, and ferns of the Mt Spec – Paluma Range area. Few illustrations, but good exhaustive keys. Foolscap format.

 

Jarman SJ & Fuhrer BA (1995) Mosses and liverworts of rainforest in Tasmania and south-eastern Australia. CSIRO Australia, East Melbourne, & Forestry Tasmania,  134 pp.  ISBN 0643056858.

A short introductory section on bryophytes, followed by brief descriptions and superb colour photos for about 100 species. RECOMMENDED

 

Malcolm WM & Malcolm N (2013, unpublished work in progress)  The mosses of Tasmania: An Illustrated Key. 500+ pp. Micro-Optics Press. Nelson, New Zealand.

[Further information: http://www.micro-opticspress.com/Site/MICRO-OPTICS_PRESS.html, email: nancym @ clear.net.nz; postal: PO Box 320, Nelson, New Zealand 7040.]

A highly visual guide to identification of the genera (and many of the species) of Tasmanian mosses, using mainly leaf characters, illustrated by superb colour micrographs and with short descriptions and notes.  Currently only at the stage of a draft for critical comment, awaiting final updating and revision. However a number of copies of very useable earlier and shorter drafts (2013, 2010; and 2007 as ‘Tasmanian Mosses: A Colour Atlas’) are in circulation and in some botanical libraries.

 

McCarthy PM (ed.) (2006) Flora of Australia Volume 51: Mosses 1. Flora of Australia Series. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). 472 pp. ISBN  9780643092402 HBK, 9780643092419 pbk.

The first of three projected volumes in the Flora of Australia series describing and illustrating more than 1000 species of Australian mosses. This first volume provides a synopsis of the history of moss studies in Australia, and overviews of classification, morphology, sexuality, ecology and evolution. This is followed by a key to the more than 300 genera of mosses known from Australia and its island territories, plus detailed keys and descriptions down to species and variety for the first 22 families, 42 genera and 238 species. 50 pages of line-art and 64 colour photographs. RECOMMENDED.

 

Meagher D & Fuhrer B (2003) A field guide to the mosses & allied plants of southern Australia. (Flora of Australia supplementary series no. 20). Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra and The Field Naturalists Club of Victoria, Blackburn.  280 pp. ISBN 0642568286.

Near-comprehensive guide to the mosses, liverworts and hornworts occurring south of a line from Geraldton WA to Coffs Harbour NSW, with many of the species also found further north. Species are grouped artificially, with straightforward group keys. The excellent colour photos are unfortunately marred by a blue cast in printing in this first edition. Good plain-English descriptions are accompanied by fair-quality line drawings of diagnostic features, notes on similar species, and cryptic distributional information. RECOMMENDED

 

Ochyra R (1998) The moss flora of King George Island Antarctica. Cracow, Poland.

278pp..  ISBN 8385444602.

Keys, descriptions and good line drawings; introductory chapters on the island and its biota.

 

Ramsay HP (1984) Census of New South Wales mosses. Telopea, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 455-533. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.  ISSN 0312-9764.

Now very dated. Checklist and distribution codes for NSW mosses (including ACT), plus information on distributions outside NSW and Australia.

 

Ramsay HP & Streimann H (1984) Mosses and their distribution in the Australian Capital Territory. Telopea, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 559-574. Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney.  ISSN 0312-9764.

Checklist and distribution of ACT mosses by region (Canberra Plain, Brindabella Ranges, Booth Range, Southern Ranges, Kowen Forest); also with information on distribution of the taxa outside the ACT.

 

Read C & Slattery B (2014) Mosses of dry forests in south eastern Australia. Friends of the Box-Ironbark Forests (Mount Alexander Region) Inc., PO Box 322 Castlemaine Vic. 3450; www.fobif.org.au. 101 pp. ISBN 9780646916934.

Pocket-sized guide, with fair to excellent colour photos and brief plain-english descriptions. The geographic scope is a little vague – the focus is on species of the Box-Ironbark community in north-central Victoria but many of the 38 species covered have much wider ranges.

 

Scott GAM & Stone IG (1976) The mosses of southern Australia. Academic Press, London.  495 pp.  ISBN 0126338507.

Keys to, and descriptions of, the mosses of the area. Good diagrams. Now dated.

 

Seppelt R (2004)  The moss flora of Macquarie Island. Australian Antarctic Division, Kingston, Tas. 328 pp. ISBN 1876934077.

Keys, descriptions, and good line illustrations of the 845 species of moss on this subantactic Island.

 

Seppelt RD, Jarman SJ, Dalton PJ (2013) An illustrated catalogue of Tasmanian mosses, Part 1. Tasmanian Museum & Art Gallery. 98 pp. ISBN 4187002812, 9784187002811.

Spirally bound. First of a projected multi-part series, this volume covers 37 species (out of c. 400), with detailed diagnostic line drawings, Tasmanian distribution maps and altitude charts, and references to other information sources (e.g. taxonomic descriptions). No keys.  Introductory section on the hIstory of Tasmanian bryology.

 

Streimann H (2002) The mosses of Norfolk Island. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. (Flora of Australia, supplementary series no.  16)  178 pp.   ISBN 0642568219.

Covers the island’s 69 known species, with moderately technical keys to genus and species, technical descriptions, excellent line drawings, and a few colour photos.

RECOMMENDED

 

 

CRYPTOGAMS — HEPATICS (Liverworts And Hornworts)

 

Allison KW & Child J (1975) Liverworts of New Zealand. University of Otago Press, Dunedin, NZ.  300 pp.

Easy to follow keys, descriptions, and illustrations of NZ hepatics, aimed at users with a hand lens. Useful in Tasmania or as an adjunct to Scott (1985) for habit diagrams and comparison of descriptions.

 

Bednarek-Ochyra H, Vana J, Ochyra R & Lewis Smith RI (2000) The liverwort flora of Antarctica. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany, Cracow.  236 pp.  ISBN 8385444742.

A critical evaluation of all available specimens and data on the Antarctic hepatic flora, including the Australian territories and islands.. Provides keys, detailed taxonomic descriptions with illustrations, together with associated reproductive, ecological and distributional (both regional and global) information.

 

Eldridge D & Tozer M (1997)  A practical guide to soil lichens and bryophytes of Australia’s dry country. NSW Dept of Land & Water Conservation, Sydney, NSW. 80 pp. ISBN 0731303024.

An excellent general guide to the organic soil-crusts of the Australian rangelands, with a view to their use as indicators of land and soil condition. The main groups involved – lichens. mosses, hepatics, and cyanobacteria are discussed, and a brief and easy key provided to assign samples to them; the more conspicuous genera are described and illustrated with excellent colour photos.  RECOMMENDED

 

Entwisle TJ (ed.) (1994) Aquatic cryptogams of Australia:- a guide to the larger fungi, lichens, macroalgae, liverworts and mosses of Australian inland waters. Australian Society for Limnology, Abbotsford, Vic. (Australian Society for Limnology special publication no. 10)  151 pp.  ISSN 0156-8426.

Key to the major groups of the title, then keys within each group. Black and white drawings of selected species.

 

Jarman SJ & Fuhrer BA (1995)  Mosses and liverworts of rainforest in Tasmania and south-eastern Australia. CSIRO and Forestry Tasmania, East Melbourne.  134 pp.  ISBN 0643056858.

A short introductory section on bryophytes, followed by brief descriptions and superb colour photos for c. 100 species. A good introductory guide.

 

McCarthy PM (2003) Catalogue of Australian liverworts and hornworts.  Flora of Australia Supplementary Series no 21. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra / CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic.  138 pp. ISBN 0642568294 (9780642568298).

Not directly for identification, but lists 869 accepted taxa with synonyms, misapplied names and lists of literature including direct identification resources. Now superseded by McCarthy (2006).

 

McCarthy, P.M. (2006 – ongoing) Checklist of Australian liverworts and hornworts. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Version 6 April 2006.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/liverwortlist/liverworts_intro.html 

Not an identification tool as such, but provides a comprehensive list of recognised current names and synonyms, publication details, distribution by State, and references.

 

Schuster RM (2000, 2002) Austral Hepaticae. J Cramer, Berlin.  (2 vols.)

Part 1: (Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 118; 524 pp., ISBN 344351040X);

Part 2: (Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 119; 606 pp., ISBN 3443510418).  ISSN (series) 14389134.

A scientific journal paper, not easily available except from botanical research libraries, but important for the Australian liverworts. Full keys, technical descriptions, detailed line drawings.

 

Scott GAM (1985) Southern Australian liverworts. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. (Australian flora and fauna series no. 2)  216 pp.  ISBN 064403632X.

Keys to and descriptions of the liverwort and some hornwort species; limited, now dated, and with some omissions due to being based on the author’s collections only, and essentially covering only the south-east of the continent. Good illustrations.

 

 

EMU BUSHES (Eremophila)

 

Boschen N, Goods M, & Wait R (2008) Australia’s Eremophilas: changing gardens for a changing climate. Bloomings Books, Melbourne. 271 pp. ISBN 9781876473655.

Mainly a gardening guide, but covers most of the described species, with brief descriptions and notes and good colour photos.

 

Brown A & Buirchell B (2011) A field guide to the Eremophilas of Western Australia. Simon Nevill Publications (snpub@bigpond.net.au). 335 pp. ISBN 9780980348156.

All WA species are covered, with very brief descriptions and notes, and very good colour photos.

 

Chinnock RJ (2007) Eremophila and allied genera – a monograph of the plant family Myoporaceae. Rosenberg Publishing, Dural NSW (www.rosenbergpub.com.au). 672 pp. ISBN 9781877058165.

A technical monograph (full keys, descriptions and nomenclature), with excellent line drawings and fair to good colour photos. Covers all species of the family.

 

[Jennings C, Freeborn M, and Holliday I] (1997) Eremophilas for the garden. Society for Growing Australian Plants SA Region, Adelaide, SA.  72 pp.  ISBN 0646329324.

Plain-English descriptions and notes, and good colour photos, of nearly 70 taxa.

 

 

EUCALYPTS – see Myrtaceae

 

 

FERNS and FERN-ALLIES

 

Andrews, S.B. (1990). Ferns of Queensland: a handbook to the ferns and fern allies. Queensland Department of Primary Industries: Brisbane (Information Series Q189008). 427 pp. ISBN 0724232249.

Now somewhat dated, but not really superseded by any one resource (cross-checking to recent resources for currency of names is advisable). Provides identification keys to all taxa known to date of publication, and descriptions with all necessary technical detail (rendered as far as possible in very clear language).  Good line illustrations.

 

Chaffey C (2002) A field guide to Australian ferns.

Vol. 1: Including all 260 ferns and fern allies south of Capricorn. 142 pp. ISBN 0958114900.

Vol. 2: Including all 370 ferns and fern allies north of Capricorn. 168 pp. ISBN 0958114919.

Natureview Publications (PO Box 130, Bangalow NSW 2479).

Each volume includes keys to all taxa, short diagnostic descriptions, and basic line drawings and scans.

 

Cronin L & Westmacott M (2000) Australian palms, ferns, cycads and pandans : key guide. Envirobook, Annandale, NSW.  190 pp..  ISBN 0858811731.

First published in 1989 as ‘Key guide to palms, ferns and allies’. Detailed, non-technical descriptions, with good quality colour paintings.

 

Duncan BD & Isaac G (1986) Ferns and allied plants of Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.  258 pp.  ISBN 0522842623.

Keys, short descriptions, good line drawings, and excellent colour and black and white photos. The emphasis is Victorian, with the maps relating only to that State (but text comment for SA and Tasmanian occurrences).

 

Garrett M (1996) The ferns of Tasmania – their ecology and distribution. Tasmanian Forest Research Council, Hobart.  217 pp.  ISBN 072463519X.

Despite the title, this serves as an identification aid; it contains a field key to all 101 species recorded, with ecological notes, distribution maps, and colour photos of each (but no descriptions).

 

Gullan P & Walsh N (1986) Ferns and fern allies of the upper Yarra Valley & Dandenong Ranges. National Herbarium of Victoria, South Yarra, Vic.  102 pp.  ISBN 0724159479.

Ring-bound, wide-format. Includes a simple line-illustrated key to groups, keys to species, and species descriptions with local distribution information and notes; most are illustrated with line-drawings.

 

Jones DL & Clemesha SC (1981) Australian ferns and fern allies with notes on their cultivation. 2nd edn. Reed, Frenchs Forest, NSW.  232 pp.  ISBN 0589502654.

Descriptions and line drawings; no keys.

 

Jones DL (1987) Encyclopaedia of ferns. Lothian, Melbourne.  434 pp.  ISBN 0850911796.

Mainly a cultivation guide, covering many Australian and exotic species, but the many colour plates and line illustrations of leaves can assist identification in tandem with other resources.

 

Orchard AE (ed.) (1998) Flora of Australia. Volume 48. Ferns, gymnosperms and allied groups. CSIRO, Canberra.  766 pp.  hbk: ISBN-10 0643059717, ISBN-13 978064305971; pbk: ISBN-10 0643059725, ISBN-13 9780643059726.

Authoritative and comprehensive account of the Australian ferns, fully keyed, with many line illustrations and good colour photos of representatives of many genera.

ELECTRONIC VERSION: The Fern & Fern-ally content of this volume of the Flora of Australia is available in on-line version (keys to all ranks plus searchable database of family, generic and species treatments) at  https://www.environment.gov.au/science/abrs/publications/flora-of-australia/vol48.  RECOMMENDED

See also ‘Oceanic Islands’ section of this bibliography for details of Flora of Australia vols 50 and 51, which include the pteridophytes of those islands.

 

 

 

FUNGI  and SLIME MOULDS (Myxomycetes)

This section deals with easily visiable macrofungi, not the more specialised field of microfungi.

 

Aberdeen JEC (1979) Introduction to the mushrooms, toadstools, and larger fungi of Queensland. Queensland Naturalists Club, Brisbane.  120 pp.  ISBN 9595607.

Key to genera, with a brief description of each genus, plus numerous black and white diagrams depicting fungal features and many species, and a few colour illustrations.

 

Bell A (2005) An illustrated guide to the coprophilous Ascomycetes of Australia. CBS, Utrecht. (= CBS Biodiversity Series No. 3). 172 pp. ISBN 9070351580; ISSN 15718859.

[US edition publ. by American Phytopathological Society]. 

Spiral-bound guide to identification of coprophilous fungi (i.e. fungi that grow in dung). Initial pictorial keys aid identification to class and genus, then standard dichotomous keys (cross-referenced to illustrations of useful characters) to identify to species. Almost 100 pages of excellent colour or black-and-white drawings of fruiting bodies, spores and asci.

This book is an expansion of Bell A (1983) Dung Fungi: an illustrated guide to coprophilous fungi in New Zealand (Victoria University Press, Wellington, NZ.

 

Bougher NL & Syme K (1998) Fungi of southern Australia. University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands, WA.  391 pp.  ISBN 1875560807.

The title is a misleading, as there is a strong bias to south-western Australian species, although many do also occur elsewhere; an effect of this is that some common species are omitted or only mentioned in passing. Extensive introductory chapters on fungal properties and ecology, methods for description and preservation, main groups, and species descriptions for 125 species of macrofungi, with excellent colour paintings and line drawings. Strangely deficient in distributional information.

 

Cleland JB (1976) Toadstools and mushrooms and other larger fungi of South Australia.   South Australian Government Printer, Adelaide.  326 pp.

Reprint of 1934-5 publication; now superseded by later works. Deals with macrofungi of South Australia and includes some from New South Wales. Has keys to orders, families and genera, macroscopic descriptions and descriptions of spores, with some watercolours.

 

Cole M, Fuhrer B & Holland A (1984) A field guide to the common genera of gilled fungi in Australia (rev. ed.). Inkata Press, Melbourne & Sydney. ISBN 0909605114.

This contains a fold-out key to genera, a booklet of field characters, six sheets of colour photographs and three of line profiles. Now well superseded by later works.

 

Dashorst GRM & Jessop JP  (1998) Plants of the Adelaide Plains and Hills. The Botanic Gardens of Adelaide and State Herbarium of South Australia, Adelaide. 224 pp. ISBN 09730860418.

This is mostly non-fungal, but plates iv to x feature small paintings of about 90 species of fungi. The first edition (1990, Kangaroo Press, ISBN 0864173237) is also still around.

 

Entwisle TJ (ed.) (1994) Aquatic cryptogams of Australia – a guide to the larger fungi, lichens, macroalgae, liverworts and mosses of Australian inland waters. Australian Society for Limnology, Abbotsford, Vic. (Australian Society for Limnology special publication no. 10)  151 pp.  ISSN 01568426.

Key to the major groups of the title, then keys within each group. Black and white drawings of selected species.

 

Fuhrer BA (2001) A field companion to Australian fungi. Rev. edn. Bloomings Books, Hawthorn, Vic.  162 pp.  ISBN 1876473401.

Superb colour photos of 138 species, with very brief notes. Superseded by Fuhrer (2010), see next.

 

Fuhrer B (2010) A field guide to Australian Fungi. Revised edition. Bloomings Books. 360 pp. ISBN  9781876473518.

Describes more than 500 species, including slime moulds. 548 excellent colour photos, with background sections on fungal biology and ecology and advice on field collecting. The first edition (2005) remains useful. RECOMMENDED.

 

Fuhrer B & Robinson R (1992) Rainforest fungi of Tasmania and south-east Australia. CSIRO and Tasmanian. Forestry Commission, Melbourne.  95 pp.  ISBN 0643053115.

Excellent colour photographs and very brief descriptions of over 100 taxa. Deliberately omits information on toxicity/edibility.

 

Fungimap (ongoing) – website. 

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: On-line:  http://fungimap.org.au

The Fungimap site anchors a national network of fungi-spotters, and contains a wealth of resources and links for identification, including an on-line pictorially based field guide, a ‘beginner’s guide’ if you are just getting interested, species distribution maps, and an image collection.. Also acts as an on-line bookstore for some fungal publications.
RECOMMENDED

 

Gates G & Ratkowski D (2014) A field guide to Tasmanian fungi. Tasmanian Field Naturalists Club Inc. 251 pp. ISBN 9780957852921.

Covers more than 600 species of macrofungi with brief but very lucid plain-language descriptions and very good colour photos. RECOMMENDED.

 

Gates G, Ratkowsky D & Wiltshire R (2015) FungiFlip. A pictorial guide to Tasmanian fungi.  School of Biological Sciences, University of Tasmania.  [16-panel folding flipchart]. ISBN 9780646942957.

A fold-out laminated field guide covering 360 species of Tasmanian macrofungi (agarics, polypores, clubs and corals, earthballs earthstars and puffballs, jellies, leathers, resupinates, spinys and stinkhorns, and ascomycetes.  Each is shown in a good colour photo. RECOMMENDED FOR BACKPACK.

 

Gibson N (2009) Cool climate fungi of Tasmania. [Self-publ.] 124 pp. ISBN lacking.

A large-format (A4) book with variable-quality photos of many species and minimal text.

 

Grey P & Grey E (2005) Fungi down under: the Fungimap field guide to Australian fungi. Fungimap Inc. [http://fungimap.org.au, or c/o Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne]. 146 pp. ISBN 0646446746. (p/back).

A field guide to 100 of the Fungimap target species, touching on all major groups of macrofungi. Good plain-English descriptions, excellent illustrations, basic distributional and ecological information. No keys.

 

Grgurinovic CA (1997) Larger fungi of South Australia. Adelaide Botanic Gardens & Flora & Fauna Handbooks of South Australia Committee, Adelaide.  725 pp.  ISBN 0730807371.

Detailed descriptions, keys, and illustrations for about 450 species, including many new to science. Many taxa also occur in adjacent States.

 

Griffiths K (1985) A field guide to the larger fungi of the Darling scarp and south-west of Western Australia. The Author.  80 pp.  ISBN 0958970505.

Contains a brief key to the broad groups of macro-fungi; paintings and short descriptions (macroscopic characters) of many species.

 

Hood IA (1992)  An illustrated guide to fungi on wood in New Zealand. Auckland University Press, Auckland. 424 pp. ISBN 1869400631.

Includes many inconspicuous genera and some species that also occur in southern Australia and for which there is currently limited easily accessible Australian literature. Easy keys, using both field and microscope characters, species descriptions, and fair-quality line drawings.

 

Hood IA (2003)  An introduction to fungi on wood in Queensland. School of Environmental Sciences, University of New England, Armidale, NSW. 388 pp. ISBN 1863898190.

Over 180 species described and illustrated with line drawings, short plain-English descriptions, ecological notes and references.

 

Katsaros P (1989) Illustrated guide to common slime moulds.  Mad River Press, Eureka CA, USA.

Key to, and descriptions of, common slime mould species, plus superb colour photographs of many species. 66 pp.  ISBN 0916422720.

 

Lloyd S (2014) Where the slime mould creeps: the fascinating world of Myxomycetes. Tympanocryptis Press, Birralee, Tas.  102 pp. ISBN 9780646924519.

[NOT SEEN].  Covers over 60 species from tall ecualypt forest in northern Tasmania; colour photos.

 

Macdonald R & Westerman J (1979) A field guide to fungi of south-eastern Australia.  Nelson, Melbourne.  153 pp.  ISBN 0170052907.

Contains a brief introduction, no keys, and a short macroscopic description and colour photograph of many common species of macrofungi.

 

Martin GW, Alexopoulos CJ & Farr ML  (1983) The genera of Myxomycetes.  University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, USA.  102 pp.  ISBN 0877451249.

A technical work, which covers all world genera to date of publication, with illustrations.

 

Matheny PB & Bougher NL (2017) Fungi of Australia: Inocybaceae. Fungi of Australia Series. CSIRO Publishing. 592 pp. ISBN 9781486306664.

An illustrated account of 137 species of this family of gilled fungi, including 101 new to science.

“Until now, only a small number of species had been described from Australia, but with this major revision a total of 137 species are recognised, of which 101 are new to science. Ninety per cent of these species (121 of the 137) are found only in Australia.” Keys,descriptions,maps,illustrations,images.

 

May TW & Wood AE (1997) Fungi of Australia. Volume 2A. Catalogue and bibliography of Australian macrofungi 1, Basidiomycota (in part).  Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra / CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood  348 pp.  ISBN-10: 0643059296; ISBN-13: 9780643059306 pbk, 9780643059290 hbk..

No descriptions or illustrations; this is a technical monograph cataloguing over 3,000 names with an indication of their current taxonomic status, authors, place of publication, and type details. As a print resource this couples with May et al. (2003) (see next) and others in the Fungi of Australia series. The core catalogue content of both is now available in the on-line May et al. (2004)

 

May TW, Milne J, Shingles S & Jones RH.  (2003) Fungi of Australia.  Volume 2B. Catalogue and bibliography of Australian fungi 2. Basidiomycota p.p. & Myxomycota p.p. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic. / Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. 496 pp.  ISBN-10: 0643069070; ISBN-13:  9780643069077.

This volume continues the catalogue of vol. 2A (May & Wood 1997, q.v.) in listing all scientific names applied to Australian macrofungi in the past, and assigning each to a current accepted name, with a comprehensive listing of relevant literature. This volume also provides keys and descriptions for groups including the bracket fungi, slime moulds, puffballs, earthballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, birds nest fungi, coral fungi, jelly fungi, polypores, and stereoid, corticioid and thelephoroid fungi. As a print resource this couples with May et al. (1997) (see previous); the core catalogue content of both (but not the keys of this volume) is now available in the on-line May et al. (2004)

 

May TW, Milne J, Wood AE, Shingles S, Jones RH & Neish P (2004) Interactive catalogue of Australian fungi, version 3.0. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra / Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne.ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE (but only current to 2004): https://data.rbg.vic.gov.au/cat/fungicatalogue

Search and browse database of recognised names, synonyms, and references to occurrences in Australia, and references to illustrations of fruiting bodies and microscopic diagnostic characters; current to 2004.

 

May TW, Thiele K, Dunk CW & Lewis SH (2014) FunKey: an interactive guide to the macrofungi of Australia: key to agarics. ISBN 9780642568779. Intentic, Brisbane, Qld / Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: Interactive: USB and Apps : USB available from Lucid Central (http://shop.lucidcentral.org/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=69), or purchase within Australia from  Fungimap (http://fungimap.org.au).Works on Windows, Mac, Linux. The Java Runtime Environment is required.

FunKey is also available as an app for Apple or Android mobile systems (purchase these direct from itunes store or Google play). The app provides the key as well as the fact sheets for genera and characters, but does not include the extensive introductory material on genera and characters or the glossary that is present on the USB version. In the app, the ‘best’ function is available, but not other Lucid key functions such as ‘subsets’ or ranked ‘sort’.

Identification via an interactive, well-illustrated key, of the 159 taxa of agaric fungi occurring in Australia; many character states to suit live or dried material, fact sheets for each taxon. References and a comprehensive glossary. For further background see May (2016) in Australasian Plant Conservation 25(1): 7-9.

 

McCann IR (2003) Australian fungi illustrated. Macdown Productions, Vermont, Vic. 128 pp.  ISBN 0975078003.

Covers 400 species, arranged in easy-recognition groups, with small but very good colour photos and very brief caption information.  There seems to be a substantial bias to the south-eastern part of the continent.

 

McCarthy PM (2015) Checklist of Australian lichenicolous fungi. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Version 1 July 2015.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: On-line at http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/lichenlist/Lichenicolous_Fungi.html

A list of taxa (alphabetical by genus) giving author, place of publication, distribution by State, and details of host.

 

McMullan-Fisher S, Leonard P, Guard F (2014) Australian subtropical fungi.

Suncoast Fungi, Buderim, Qld. 160 pp. ISBN-13: 9780646915524.

A field guide to 115 fungi of the Australian subtropics, with a simple key to major groups, and good colour photos and brief but information-rich descriptions of each species (many not previously covered in field guides).  

 

McMullan-Fisher S & Syme K (2018) Mushrooms and other fungi of south-west western Australia. Western Australian Naturalists Club. ISBN 277000064248.

A pocket-sized and field-hardy fold-out guide covering 91 species from the area south-west of a line from Kalbarri to Ravensthorpe. Minimal text, high-quality colour images.

 

Moore S & O’Sullivan P (2013) A guide to common fungi of the Hunter-Central Rivers region. Hunter-Central Rivers Catchment Management Authority, Paterson NSW. 155 pp. ISBN 9780975067055.

Covers about 170 species of macrofungi arranged in artificial ‘growth form’ groups; a pictorial guide assist placement to these, and is followed by an illustrated glossary of terms. Each species has very good colour photos, brief but effective descriptive notes (kept as plain-enmglish as possible), and very brief notes on habitats, substrates, and season of emergence.

 

Moore S & O’Sullivan P (2016) A guide to the common fungi of coastal New South Wales. NSW Dept of Trade & Investment, Tocal College, NSW (https://www.tocal.nsw.edu.au/publications). 151 pp. ISBN 1742569447, 9781742569444.

A selection of species from the major groups (agarics, boletes, leathers and polypores, corals, jellies, puffball and birds nest, stinkhorns, Ascomycota, and slime moulds. Good colour images, easy text.

 

Orchard AE (ed.) (1996) Fungi of Australia. Volume 1A. Introduction, classification.  ABRS/CSIRO, Canberra.  435 pp.  ISBN-10: 0643058028; ISBN-13: 9780643058897 pbk, 9780643058903 hbk.

Excellent introduction and review of many aspects of fungal taxonomy, biology, history of Australian mycology, glossary of mycological terms, and bibliography. Includes keys to the different orders. RECOMMENDED

 

Orchard AE (ed.) (1996) Fungi of Australia. Volume 1B. Introduction, fungi in the environment.  ABRS/CSIRO, Canberra.  405 pp.  ISBN-10: 0643059350; ISBN-13: 9780643059368 pbk, 9780643059351 hbk.

Not an identification resource as such, but contains 13 essays on different groups of fungi in relation to habitat and animal interactions, toxicity, and fungi as an animal and human food source.

 

Priest MJ (2006) Fungi of Australia: Septoria. Fungi of Australia Series. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS).  268 pp. ISBN  9780643093768.

The anamorphic fungal genus Septoria is one of the largest genera of plant pathogens, known to infect hosts in 54 families of flowering plants in Australia, especially the Asteraceae (daisies) Poaceae (grasses). This volume documents 132 species of Septoria, its teleomorph Mycosphaerella, and six related genera, with detailed descriptions and illustrations of each taxon.

RECOMMENDED

 

Robinson R (2003)  Fungi of the south-west forests. WA Dept of Conservation & Land Management, Kensington WA. 72 pp. ISBN-10: 0930755282; ISBN-13: 9780730755289 [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

Paperback pocket booklet covering about 50 species of (mostly common) macrofungi of the jarrah, karri and tingle forests.; excellent colour photos with short plain-English descriptions and general notes. RECOMMENDED

 

Saunders B (2015) Admiring the fungi of Lower Eyre Peninsula: a preliminary guide to the large fungi of the region. Marleston S.A. 180 pp. ISBN 9780646944111 (p/bk). colour photographs.

Field guide to the more conspicuous macrofungi of the Lower Eyre Peninsular of South Australia. Introductory section on fungal diversity, biology, habitats, and distribution. Good colour photos.

 

Shepherd CJ & Totterdell CJ (1988) Mushrooms and toadstools of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne.  162 pp.  ISBN 0909605513.

Contains an introduction, glossary, keys to orders, families and genera, macroscopic descriptions, and descriptions of spores. Also numerous colour photos.

 

Stephenson SL & Stempen H (1994) Myxomycetes: A handbook of Slime Molds.

Timber Press, Oregon USA.  200 pp. ISBN-10: 0881924393, ISBN-13: 9780881924398

This North American field guide covers many species (with keys). It does not necessarily cover all Australian genera or species, although some occur in common. It is however one of the clearest low-tech introductions to the group and contains excellent information on diagnostic characters to look for and on the biology and ecology of the group, with watercolours, line drawings and photos.  This book is print-on-demand and is not available from the publisher’s website (!), but can be ordered via Amazon or GoogleBooks.

 

Tait R (ed.) (2007) Fungi out west: some fungi of southern inland Queensland. Chinchilla Field Naturalists Club, Chinchilla, Qld. 154 pp. ISBN 9780980382402

A small handbook with photos and paintings of a variety of fungi from an area generally ignored by field guides. Reportedly contains a few mistakes but still useful if used with care. See review in Fungimap Newsletter no. 33 (2007) at http://fungimap.org.au/.  

 

Wood AE (1990) Australian mushrooms and toadstools : how to identify them. Rev. edn. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, NSW.  45 pp.  ISBN 0868400890.

Contains keys to the most common genera of fleshy gilled fungi.

 

Young AM (2001) 101 Forest fungi of eastern Australia. Version 1.0. Australia Biological Resources Study, Canberra / Knowledge Books & Software, Brighton QLD. CD-ROM

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: INTERACTIVE on CD-ROM.

A user-friendly interactive key running on the LUCID system, with a good set of colour images, descriptions,  and glossary diagrams. Out of print, but second-hand copies may circulate.

 

Young  AM (2005) Fungi of Australia: Hygrophoraceae. Fungi of Australia Series. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). 188 pp. ISBN  9780643091955

The family Hygrophoraceae includes some of the most conspicuous and beautiful gilled fungi. This volume provides identification keys to genera and species, descriptions of each taxon, and colour and line illustrations. RECOMMENDED

 

Young  AM (‘2005’ [2004]) A field guide to the fungi of Australia. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, NSW.  240 pp.  ISBN-10: 0868407429; ISBN-13: 9780868407425.

Brief introduction to fungi in general, a key to common genera, followed by descriptions of more than 170 macrofungal species, illustrated with line sketches, colour paintings and photos. (Previous, smaller editions published as Common Australian fungi : a naturalist’s guide, by same publisher). Now rather superseded by later works – for field guide, see e.g. Fuhrer 2010.

 

 

GOODENIACAE

 

George AS (exec. Ed.) (1992) Flora of Australia Volume 35: Brunoniaceae, Goodeniaceae.  (Flora of Australia Series).  Australian Biological Resources Study / Australian Government Publishing Service (AGPS). 351 pp.  ISBN 9780644144544 pbk; ISBN 9780644145534 hbk.

Now somewhat dated but still the only comprehensive national treatment of the family. Usual flora treatments of family, genera and species, with keys, distributional info, good line drawings and a few black and white micrographs and colout illustrations.  RECOMMENDED

ELECTRONIC VERSION: Flora of Australia Online: Content of this printed Flora of Australia volume is available in searchable database form at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/

 

 

GRASSES

 

Grappling with grasses – introduction to identification

 

Clarke I (2015) Name those Grasses. Identifying grasses, sedges and rushes.  Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, Vic. 536 pp. ISBN 9780980407648. 

A ‘how to identify’ guide for these groups, rather than a comprehensive species guide, although 206 species are covered as examples, many of them common.  As with Clark & Lee’s (2003) general Name that Flower, this is a fabulous primer for improving your identification skills – in this case in three large groups that are often found intimidating. Illustrated throughout with excellent and well-labelled line drawings that help to decrypt the most difficult characters.

 

Top-line national resources: Flora of Australia series (3 vols.), and AusGrass.

 

Mallett K & Orchard AE (eds) (2002) Flora of Australia Volume 43. Poaceae 1: Introduction and Atlas. Flora of Australia Series. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). 406 pp. ISBN-10 0643068023; ISBN1-13 (hbk) 9780643068025, (pbk) 9780643068032.

The first grasses volume of the national Flora. This volume includes keys to the tribes and genera of Australian grasses, along with a family description, small maps of distribution of all species, and a series of essays on grass structure and variation, classification, paleobotany, anatomy and ecophysiology, grass and grassland ecology, biogeography, and economic attributes.  While the identification keys in this volume go down only to genus, it is an indispensable book for anyone developing an interest in the grasses. RECOMMENDED.

 

Wilson A (ed.) (2009) Flora of Australia. Vol. 44A: Poaceae 2. ABRS, Canberra / CSIRO, Melbourne. 410 pp. ISBN 9780643096295 (hb), 9780643096301 (pb).

Nationally comprehensive and authoritative flora treatments for the sub-families Pharoideae, Pooideae, Bambusoideae and Ehrhartoideae. Keys, descriptions, plus line illustrations of many species. RECOMMENDED.

 

Mallett K (ed.) (2005) Flora of Australia Volume 44B: Poaceae 3: Centothecoideae — Chloridoideae. Flora of Australia Series. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). 504 pp. ISBN-10: (hbk) 0643069607, (pbk) 0643069615; ISBN-13 (hbk)  9780643069602, (pbk) 9780643069619.

Covers the native and naturalised species in subfamilies Arundinoideae, Danthonioideae, Aristidoideae, Micrairoideae and Chloridoideae (55 genera and over 450 species). These occur across the tropical and temperate zones and include Triodia, the Wallaby grasses, Aristida, Mitchell grasses, the Couches, Parramatta grasses, Arundo and Phragmites. Descriptions, identification keys, bibliographic information, and notes on ecology and distribution, and over 90 pages of illustrations  RECOMMENDED.

 

 

Sharp D & Simon BK (2014) AusGrass : grasses of Australia. Revised edition. ABRS Identification Series. ABRS / CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic. Flash Drive – 2014: ISBN 9780643068612. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE,  INTERACTIVE – on Flash-Drive

An interactive identification and information system, running on the user-friendly LucID system.  Covers all the known 1323 species growing in Australia, both native and naturalised. Includes descriptions, comprehensive glossary of terms, species notes, over 2600 illustrations and photos, and more than 1400 maps. Previous versions (2002 et seq.) on CD-ROM and flash-drive still remain useful.  HIGHLY RECOMMENDED.  Slightly superseded by the on-line but static AusGrass2 (Simon, Alfonso et al. 2016, q.v.)

 

Simon BK, Alfonso Y, et al. (2015) AusGrass2: grasses of Australia.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE,  INTERACTIVE, on-line: http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info/

A slight update and on-line version of the Sharp & Simon (2014) AusGrass revised edition, q.v. This version of this extrememely valuable resource has been static since 2015, pending the securing of funding for update and hosting on a permanent basis.

 

 

Grasses – other resources

 

[Anon.] (2010) A guide to pasture species in NSW. AgGuide Series.  Tocal College, NSW Industry & Investment  144 pp. ISBN  9780731306275.

This is a pasture management guide, but includes some descriptive information and colour photographs of many grass and legume species (and cultivars) used in the industry in NSW.

 

Bell U (2008) Common native grasses of south-west WA. [self-published?, Mundaring WA]. 56 pp. [ISBN  lacking]

Covers 44 species with brief plain-English descriptions and fair-quality colour photos. No keys.

 

Burbidge NT (1984) Australian grasses.  Revised edn. Angus and Robertson, Sydney. 283 pp.  ISBN 0207148392.

Now very outdated, and mainly of historical interest. Species are arranged alphabetically, with descriptions and clear line drawings.

 

Charles Sturt University Virtual Herbarium (ongoing) On-Line Grasses Guide.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE – ON-LINE: http://www.csu.edu.au/herbarium/ , acc. Aug. 2015.

Provides scanned images of herbarium sheets, and locality information, for all grass specimens in the CSU Herbarium – 50 or so taxa mainly from central and southern NSW.

 

Clayton WD, Vorontsova MS, Harman KT & Williamson H (2006 onwards) GrassBase – The Online World Grass Flora.

http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html (accessed 22 June 2015).

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE with downloadable files, or fully INTERACTIVE with downloadable app.

An on-line, interactive identification and information retrieval system drawing from a DELTA database. GrassBase contains detailed technical morphological descriptions of all the world’s grass species, with full nomenclatural details plus an indication of global distribution. A linked synonymy database enables navigation of the many competing names in this huge global family.  The descriptions can be browsed or downloaded (free) as static documents for further use, or can be used as the basis for a customised interactive key by installing the linked INTKEY program. Species descriptions also contain some external links for further information. See also Watson & Dallwitz Grass genera of the world.

For Australia, the AusGrass system (Sharp & Simon 2014, q.v.) or various other resources (see Grasses and Grassland Plants sections of this bibliography) are to be preferred for routine identifications, but this DELTA tools contain a great deal of data and may be useful to the specialist or for newly introduced or cultivated grasses.

 

Clifford HT & Watson L (1977) Identifying grasses – data, methods and illustrations.  University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Qld.  146 pp.  ISBN 0702213128.

Keys to genera in eastern Australia; detailed discussion of grass morphology and variation. Now very dated.

 

Crowder S & Saggers B (2010) Grasses of the Northern Territory savannas – a field guide. Greening Australia (NT) Ltd. 84 pp. ISBN 9781875345861.

Useful, sturdy ringbound guide to 66 common native and introduced species occurring north from about Tennant Creek. Good plain-language descriptions and notes, including on stock palatability, with fair to good colour photos.

 

Department of Agriculture and Food. [2013?] Common plants in the Kimberley. WA Department of Agriculture and Food, South Perth.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE.

https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/rangelands/common-plants-kimberley (accessed 27 July2015). 

A basic plain-English resource for the pastoral rangelands, covering 28 species (27 of them grasses): very general descriptions, notes on values as pasture condition indicators and forage, and fair-quality colour photos.

 

Elliott M & Watsford P (2008) Grasses of subtropical eastern Australia: an introductory field guide to common grasses – native and introduced. Nullum Publications (PO Box 1152, Murwillumbah NSW 2484; email nullumbooks@gmail.com). 105 pp. ISBN-10: 0975682326; ISBN-13: 9780975682326.

Useful spiral-bound field guide to common species for the area roughly Coffs Harbour to Bundaberg and inland to the escarpment. A simple pictorial key to 126 species, with very basic descriptive information, but with fair line drawings and supplemented by a CD-ROM of good colour images for each.

 

Gibbs J (2001) Grass identification manual — for everyone : a pictorial guide to recognition of native and exotic grasses in the Northern and Southern Lofty Botanical Regions of South Australia. University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA.  103 pp. ISBN 0646416197.

Compact spiral bound and field-hardy guide to about 110 species, with very brief descriptions and fair-quality colour photos and line drawings of diagnostic features.

 

Hooker NB (2012) Grass genera in Townsville. School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. 107 pp. [ISBN lacking?]

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: free PDF: https://researchonline.jcu.edu.au/22416/1/Grass_Genera_in_Townsville_full_version_2012.pdf A very useful regional resource, comprising a dichotomous key to genera well illustrated with line drawings of diagnostic features; sets of diagnostic characters for the various tribes of the family in the area; and generic treatments with lists of local species (and in some cases species-level detail). Good line illustrations, sheet scans, and colour photos throughout.

 

Hooker NB & Jackes BR (2009) Grasses of James Cook University, Townsville Campus. Part A: A pictorial key to grass genera in North Queensland:  30 pp. ISBN 9780980558616 (pdf).

Free PDF formerly on-line at http://researchonline.jcu.edu.au/2103/ is no longer available at April 2019; users please advise of any new internet location.

A very user-friendly and heavily illustrated non-interactive dichotomous key to genera, followed by tabulated diagnostic characters for grass Tribes in the region. Don’t be misled by the first part of the title – as the second clause indicates, this Part A (but not Part B – see next) is designed to be applicable to the Queensland pastoral districts of Cook, North Kennedy and Burke, i.e. Qld north of a line roughly Mackay to Cloncurry.

 

Hooker NB (2009) Grasses of James Cook University, Townsville Campus. Part B: Generic descriptions and key to species. 102 pp. ISBN: 9780980558623 (pdf)

Free PDF formerly on-line at http://researchonline.jcu.edu.au/2104/ is no longer available at April 2019; users please advise of any new internet location.

A non-interactive ‘artificial’ dichotomous key to species, with brief plain-English genus descriptions and species descriptions mostly embedded in the terminal key leads. Illustrated with fair-quality scans of herbarium specimens and some colour photos. Also includes lists of grass species by habitat.  The PDF format is a little irritating in the absence of internal navigation tools (other than page numbers) to locate the start of each artificial group.

A brief “Addendum to Grasses of James Cook University, Townsville Campus Part B”, with a couple of errata and a list of four additional grasses found on the JCU campus, was formerly available from the SGAP Queensland website – current internet location of this document unknown.

 

Jacobs SWL, Whalley RDB, and Wheeler DJB (2008) Grasses of New South Wales. 4th edition. University of New England, Armidale NSW. 450 pp. ISBN 9781921208225.

Spiral-bound field guide with detailed introductory chapters on grass morphology and classification, three keys to genera (one pictorial), and then brief but detailed descriptions of genera and species with diagnostic line drawings. RECOMMENDED

 

Jessop J, Dashorst GRM, James FM (2006) Grasses of South Australia – an illustrated guide to the native and naturalised species. Wakefield Press, Kent Town, SA. 554 pp. ISBN 186254 6940.

Comprehensive for the State. Detailed descriptions, notes on synonymy, distribution, habitat; Keys. Excellent line illustrations for each species, and a few in colour. RECOMMENDED

 

Klaphake V (2010) Guide to the grasses of Sydney. Self-published (470 Bulli Creek Rd, Byabarra NSW 2446; phone 02 6587 1210). 107 pp. (No ISBN). 

Simple illustrated keys, with minimal text and lots of good quality line drawings. covering 171 native and introduced grass species of the area (about half the total) in 76 genera. Previous editions (2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, published as “Guide to the commoner species of grasses of Sydney”, cover fewer species and are out-dated. See also next entry.

 

Klaphake V (2002) Key to the grasses of Sydney. Self-published (470 Bulli Creek Rd, Byabarra NSW 2446; phone 02 6587 1210). 176 pp. (No ISBN).

A more comprehensive work than Klaphake (2010), covering about 300 species, more than 90% of those in the area, but now somewhat dated. Simple keys, with minimal text and lots of good quality line drawings.

 

Klaphake V (2005) Guide to the grasses of the Blue Mountains. Self-published (470 Bulli Creek Rd, Byabarra NSW 2446; phone 02 6587 1210). 104 pp. (No ISBN).

With 184 native and introduced grass species this covers almost all those occurring in the Blue Mountains area. Simple keys, with minimal text and lots of good quality line drawings to illustrate species and key characters.

 

Lamp CA, Forbes SJ, & Cade JW (2001) Grasses of temperate Australia : a field guide. Rev. edn. C.H. Jerram, Bloomings Books, Melbourne, Vic.  310 pp.  ISBN 0646411896.

Lists over 100 species of economic, horticultural or weed interest, with line drawings and some colour photos.. An illustrated key aids identification.

 

Lane P, Morris D, & Shannon G (1999) Common grasses of Tasmania : an agriculturists’ guide. Tasmanian Environment Centre, Hobart.  83 pp.  ISBN 090916018X.

Covers 41 species, with plain-English descriptions, notes on habitat and agricultural significance, and comments on similar species, with fair-quality line-drawings; no keys.

 

MacDonald S & Haslam S (2009) Grasses – native and introduced grasses of the Noosa Biosphere Reserve and Surrounding Regions. Noosa Integrated Catchment Association Inc. [P.O. Box 172, Tewantin Qld 4565; email admin@noosariver.com.au]. 140 pp. ISBN-13: 9780646509822.

A large-format book (A4) featuring full size colour images of 108 grasses (63 native and 45 introduced), scanned in colour from fresh-pressed specimens, with brief descriptive information. No keys.

 

Mitchell M (2002) Native grasses : identification handbook for temperate Australia. 3rd edn. Landlinks Press, Collingwood, Vic.  43 pp.  ISBN 064306656X.

Describes and illustrates only 17 widespread species. Spiral bound.

 

Muir S, Rose HI, McCormick LH (undated – 2009?) Grasses of the Border Rivers-Gwydir Catchments Field Guide.  NSW Dept of Industry & Investment / Border Rivers-Gwydir Catchment Management Authority. 115 pp.  ISBN 9780 734719621.

Ring-bound field guide to almost 100 native and introduced species of this region of north-central NSW. Short plain-English descriptions, distributional and management information, and excellent colour photos.

 

NSW Department of Primary Industries (2016) Grasses of the NSW slopes and adjacent plains. NSW Department of Primary Industries, Tocal College, NSW (https://www.tocal.nsw.edu.au/publications). 170 pp.

Field-hardy easy reference giuide to a selection of the more common species, with good starter notes on grass structure and diagnostic features, colour images, plain-English text.

 

Paterson JG (1992) Description and key to the identification of grasses in south-western Australia. 2nd edn. Western Australian Department of Agriculture, Perth.  (Bulletin 4210)  110 pp. [ISBN lacking?]

Covers 216 common species of the south-west; some are treated in short notes under a genus heading, others are given longer treatments. Adequate line illustrations. Contains a simple branching key.

 

Roberts BR & Silcock RG (1993) Western grasses : a grazier’s guide to the grasses of south west Queensland. ‘Management edition’.USQ Press, Toowoomba, Qld. 141 pp. ISBN 0949414603.

Covers c. 50 grass species, with a tabular key that does not require a microscope. Short descriptions, notes on soils and fodder value, and line drawings. Introductory chapters on management in pasture. Supersedes 1982 edition (Darling Downs Institute Press, Toowoomba, Qld, ISBN 0909306281).

 

Rolfe J, Golding T & Cowan D (1998) Is your pasture past it? The glove box guide to native pasture identification in north Queensland.

Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane. Information Series QI97083.

67 pp. ISBN-10: 0724267506; ISBN-13: 9780724267507.

An illustrated guide to native (and some non-native) pasture grasses in the Cape York Peninsula, Mareeba, Dalrymple, northeast Flinders, and Bowen districts. Also has notes on the growth behaviour, forage value, and condition-indicator value of each species.

 

Romanowski N (2011) Australian grasses: a gardener’s guide to native grasses, sedges, rushes and grasstrees.  Hyland House. 192 pp. ISBN  9781864471168.

Not comprehensive for any of the title groups, but describes about 200 species, illustrated with colour photos, and supplemented by cultivation info.

 

Rose H, Rose C, Campbell T [2007?] Grasses of the North Coast of NSW. NSW Department of Primary Industry. 82 pp. ISBN 073471775X.

Covers 74 common species, with good photos, dot-point descriptions, and notes on distribution, management, and similar species. No identification keys. Pretty much superseded by Rose & Rose (2012) – see next.

 

Rose H & Rose C (2012) Grasses of coastal NSW. NSW Department of Primary Industries (enquiries: Continuing Education, Tocal College, Paterson NSW 2421, email info@tocal.com). 208 pp.  ISBN 9781742562605.

Fair-quality photos and short descriptive notes for about 260 of the 450 grasses (native and exotic) that occur in the coastal strip of NSW, plus notes on distribution, significance and management. Good graphic intro to the structure of the plant and flowering parts. No keys.

 

Rose  H, Kidson J, Rose C & Edwards C (2013) Grasses of the NSW Tablelands. NSW Department of Primary Industries. 176 pp. ISBN  9781742565507.

Comb-bound guide to about 180 native and introduced species, with good colour photos and brief plain-language descriptions, plus notes on similar species, management, and distribution.

 

Shaw R & Fesuk S (2003)  Grasses of the northern rangelands.  Centre for Pest Information Technology & Transfer, University of Queensland. (1 CD-ROM) No ISBN.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE,  INTERACTIVE – on CD-ROM

CD-ROM interactive identification key, running on the LUCID system, plus species information including descriptions, distributions, ecology, management and economic role. 

NOT SEEN OR EVALUATED: an evaluation in Bush Tracks (Greening Australia, 2004) states “it is a bit difficult to get started at first as there are no instructions or introduction”.

 

Simon BK (1993) A key to Australian grasses. 2nd edn. Queensland Department of Primary Industry, Brisbane.  206 pp.  ISBN 0724253815.

Keys to all genera and species; now very dated.

 

Simon BK & Latz P (1994) A key to the grasses of the Northern Territory, Australia.   , Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Palmerston, NT. (Northern Territory botanical bulletin no.17)  71 pp.  ISBN 0724527222.

An on-line free PDF formerly at http://www.lrm.nt.gov.au/plants-and-animals/herbarium/identifying-plants appears to be no longer available.

Bare keys to genera and species; no illustrations.

 

Watsford P (2004) Grasses of the Tweed Valley of NSW. An introductory guide to locally common grasses: native and introduced. Nullum Publications (PO Box 1152 Murwillumbah NSW 2484). 83 pp. ISBN 097568230X.

Covers 35 common grass species with good plain-English descriptions, notes on habitat and similar species, and fair-quality line drawings. 15 sedges, rushes and other ‘grass-likes’ are given abbreviated treatment, and a useful list is provided of the 107 grasses that occur in the Tweed.

 

Watson L & Dallwitz MJ  (1992 onwards). Grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references.  Version: 2nd April 2015. (No ISBN).

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE with downloadable files (also available on DVD), or fully INTERACTIVE with downloadable app.Website: http://delta-intkey.com/www/data.htm  

An on-line, interactive identification and information retrieval system drawing from a DELTA database. Descriptive data is directly available on the website, or as a DVD; the interactive identification component requires downloading (free) of the linked Intkey app. The database contains detailed morphological, anatomical and physiological descriptions of over 800 grass genera. Detailed notes are lacking for many characters, but the copious character illustrations facilitate differentiating between character states. INTKEY allows generation of lists of genera exhibiting or lacking particular features or combinations of features, and to cross-reference attributes to geographical distributions. The package is illustrated with exemplar line drawings, photographs and micrographs.

The AusGrass system (Sharp & Simon 2014, q.v.) or various other resources (see Grasses and Grassland Plants sections of this bibliography) are to be preferred for routine identifications, but this DELTA system contains a great deal of data and may be useful to the specialist or for newly introduced or cultivated grasses. See also Clayton et al. Grassbase – online world grass flora for a similar DELTA-format global approach down to species level.

 

Weiller CM, Henwood MJ, Lenz J, & Watson L (1995- ?). Pooideae (Poaceae) in Australia – descriptions and illustrations. No ISBN. 

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE: http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/pooid/www/index.htm

A mothballed incomplete project. The descriptions provided on this site cover six tribes, 59 genera and 303 taxa of specific and subspecific rank of the subfamily Pooideae in Australia. Some of the images referred to in the descriptions are not yet available, and part of the genus Bromus and several species from tribe Aveneae are not included.

The AusGrass system (Sharp & Simon 2002, q.v.) or various of the recommended hardcopy resources are to be preferred.

 

Jacobs SWL, Whalley RDB, & Wheeler DJB (2008) Grasses of New South Wales. 4th edn. University of New England, Armidale, NSW.  450 pp.  ISBN 9781921208225.

Very useful, the best hard-copy fieldbook for the State. Spiral-bound A4 format. Many line illustrations and picture-keys to genera. RECOMMENDED.  The third (2002) edition, authored as Wheeler, Jacobs & Whalley, remains useful but some names are obsolete.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GRASSLAND PLANTS

Resources in this section include non-grass species. See also GRASSES section above.

 

Corangamite CMA [undated] Grasslands and Grassy Woodlands of the VVP – Landholders Guide. Corangamite Catchment Management Authority, Colac, Vic. / Greening Australia. 23 pp.  ISBN lacking.

A very brief and general landcare guide to the Victorian Volcanic Plains, with small colour photos of 25 common native species and 14 naturalised exotics.

 

Eddy D, Mallinson D, Rehwinkel R, & Sharp S (1998) Grassland flora : a field guide for the southern tablelands (NSW & ACT). Environment ACT, Canberra.  156 pp.  ISBN 0731360214.

Excellent field guide to common native and introduced grasses and herbaceous dicot species. Short descriptions; good notes and colour photos. No keys.  RECOMMENDED

 

Lunt I, Barlow T & Ross J (1998) Plains wandering : exploring the grassy plains of south-eastern Australia.  Victorian National Parks Association, & Trust for Nature (Vic.), Melbourne.  152 pp.  ISBN 1875100121.

Excellent pocket-sized guide to this ecological community. Covers 280 taxa with very good colour photos, scientific and common names, and vestigial text. Good intro sections on the main grassland regions of the south-east. RECOMMENDED

 

Marriott N & Marriott J (1998)  Grassland plants of south-eastern Australia : a field guide to native grassland and grassy woodland plants of south eastern Australia. Bloomings Books, Hawthorn, Vic.  183 pp.  ISBN 1876473002.

Short text and notes, and fair quality colour photographs, of 170 grassland species, mostly common or widespread. RECOMMENDED

 

Milson J (2000) Pasture plants of north-west Queensland. Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane. (Information series QI00015)  348 pp.  ISBN 0734500823.

Covers a wide range of native and introduced grasses, forbs, herbs, sub-shrubs, and sedges, with brief descriptions and excellent colour photos. Covers the area north-west from Winton and Hughenden to the Northern Territory border, but useful further afield as well. RECOMMENDED

 

 

GYMNOSPERMS (conifers and cycads)

 

Butt LP (1991) An introduction to the Zamiaceae in Australia. Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia, Brisbane, Qld.  55 pp.  ISBN 0958793158. Rather outdated. Illustrated, some in colour.

 

Ecroyd CE (2009) A key to cultivated pines. New Zealand Forest Research Institute Limited.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE, INTERACTIVE: http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/pines/Key%20to%20cultivated%20pines.html  

http://www.lucidcentral.com/en-au/keys173;/searchforakey.aspx (a Java update may be required).

Also available at https://www.scionresearch.com/keys/Pinus/key/Key-to-cultivated-pines/Media/Html/about.htm

An interactive, web-based identification key, running on the user-friendly Lucid system, covering 90 species of cultivated pines (based in part on naturalised and cultivated taxa present in New Zealand). 43 characters are available (foliage, cones, branchlets, buds, seeds, bark and habit). Over 300 photographs. “This is a draft key with many of the features not fully tested. If you find any errors or omissions, or can suggest any improvements please communicate these to: chris.ecroyd@scionresearch.com

 

Northern Territory Herbarium (2013) Cycads in the Northern Territory. Northern Territory Herbarium, NT Department of Land Resource Management. A free PDF formerly at

http://www.lrm.nt.gov.au/plants-and-animals/herbarium/identifying-plants is no longer available, the information now presumably being presented through NTFlora http://eflora.nt.gov.au/

An eight-page fact sheet with good background on the group, and a key to NT species of Cycas.

 

Orchard AE (ed.) (1998) Flora of Australia. Volume 48. Ferns, gymnosperms and allied groups. CSIRO, Canberra.  766 pp.  ISBN 0643059717.

Authoritative and comprehensive account of the Australian ferns, fully keyed, with many line illustrations and good colour photos of representatives of the genera.  RECOMMENDED.

ELECTRONIC VERSION: The ID key content of this printed Flora of Australia volume is available in searchable database form

http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/online-resources/flora/main-query-styles.html

 

Hill K & Osborne, R (2001) Cycads of Australia. Kangaroo Press, Sydney, NSW.  116 pp.  ISBN 073180886X.

An excellent and authoritative guide to the 69 species that occur in Australia, with descriptions, notes, and excellent colour photos; no keys. Introductory chapters on morphology and biology, toxicity, conservation and cultivation. RECOMMENDED

 

Hill K, Stanberg L, & Stevens D (1998-2012) The Cycad pages.  PlantNET, National Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust [Sydney].  ELECTRIC RESOURCE: web-accessible database: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/PlantNet/cycad/

Web access to a botanical database developed from The World List of Cycads, with a page for every known cycad and static keys to all. The Cycad Pages are not currently maintained, but remain useful.

 

Jones DL (2002) Cycads of the world : ancient plants in today’s landscape. 2nd edn. Reed New Holland, Frenchs Forest, NSW.  456pp.  ISBN. 187633469X.

A definitive world guide, covering evolution, biology, conservation, and cultivation. Identification section includes a key to the world’s genera, then genus and species descriptions with very high quality colour photos. RECOMMENDED

 

 

LICHENS, LIVERWORTS (HEPATICS) – see under CRYPTOGAMS (above)

 

 

KANGAROO PAWS (Anigozanthus)

 

Hopper, SD (1993) Kangaroo paws and catspaws: a natural history and field guide.  Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.  144 pp. ISBN 0730959139.

Includes descriptions and distribution of all wild species and subspecies, plus sections on ecology, hybridisation, and conservation. RECOMMENDED

 

Hopper SD (1987) 3. Anigozanthus. In: Flora of Australia Volume 45—Hydatellaceae to Liliaceae. ABRS/Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.  521 pp. Hbk ISBN-10: 0644052147, ISBN-13: 9780644052146. Pbk ISBN-10: 0644052155, ISBN-13: 9780644052153.

This volume includes the treatment of the Haemodoraceae family: descriptions, keys, distribution statements and nomenclature. RECOMMENDED.

ELECTRONIC VERSION: The ID key content of this printed Flora of Australia volume is available in searchable database form

http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/online-resources/flora/main-query-styles.html

 

 

MALLEE PLANTS (see also MYRTACEAE – Eucalypts)

 

Durham G (2001)  Wyperfeld – Australia’s first mallee national park. Friends of Wyperfeld National Park, Elstonwick, Victoria. 200 pp.  ISBN 0646401017.

A general guide to the Park and its flora and fauna. Only 15 pages or so are relevant to plant identification, but these contain a short species list, and plain-English descriptions of 36 conspicuous species of trees and shrubs, with good line drawings.

 

McCann I (1989) The Mallee in flower. Victorian National Parks Association, Melbourne.  120 pp.  ISBN 1875100016.

Has a Victorian emphasis, but useful for southern NSW, this guide covers more than 400 prominent species, with colour illustrations. Common and scientific names are given, with a statement of habit, flowering season, and distribution within mallee reserves. Lacks good written descriptions.

 

Weare P (1988) Australian wildflowers. Collins, Sydney.  224 pp.  ISBN 073220027X.

Good-quality watercolours of many mallee species of western NSW, sadly with very little text information.

 

 

 

MANGROVES

 

Duke NC (2006) Australia’s mangroves – the authoritative guide to Australia’s mangrove plants. University of Queensland. 200 pp. ISBN-10: 0646461966; ISBN-13: 9780646461960.

Introductory chapters on the habitats, mangrove adaptations, and human influences, followed by national and State/Territory summary information and species lists. Part 3 is an illustrated key, followed by descriptions and notes for the 41 species; more than 500 photos. A5 octavo ring-bound. RECOMMENDED.

 

George, AS (exec. ed.) (1984) Flora of Australia. Volume 22. Rhizophorales to Celastrales. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 239 pp. ISBN 0644028629.

Now somewhat dated, this volumes contains treatments of many of Australia’s mangrove plants, with short descriptions and notes, full keys to taxa, and basic line illustrations. RECOMMENDED (but cross-check to Duke 2006).

ELECTRONIC VERSION: The ID key content of this printed Flora of Australia volume is available in searchable database form

http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/online-resources/flora/main-query-styles.html

 

Lear R & Turner T (1977) Mangroves of Australia. University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Qld.  84 pp.  ISBN 0702214205.

Colour photos and line illustrations of many species.

Lee G (2003) Mangroves in the Northern Territory. Report No 25/2003D, Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Environment, Palmerston, NT. 50 pp. [ISBN lacking]

Covers nine species, with brief text information and good colour photos; also information on ecology and associated fauna.A free PDF formerly at

http://www.lrm.nt.gov.au/plants-and-animals/herbarium/identifying-plants is no longer available, the information now presumably being presented through NTFlora http://eflora.nt.gov.au/

 

Lovelock C (1993) Field guide to the mangroves of Queensland. Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, Townsville, Qld.  72 pp.  ISBN 0642185026.

Pocket format. Brief sections on ecology and conservation; brief non-technical descriptions with good colour illustrations; covers shrub and tree species.

 

Semeniuk V, Keneally, KF & Wilson, PG (1978) Mangroves of Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalists’ Club, Nedlands, WA.  92 pp.  ISBN 0959845232.

Compact field-guide, with outline of the mangrove communities and ecology, keys to species, moderately detailed (but not overly technical) descriptions, good line drawings, and lists of localities.  Good value.

 

Wightman GM (1989) Mangroves of the Northern Territory. (Northern Territory botanical bulletin no. 7). Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Palmerston, NT.  130 pp. ISBN 0724518967.

Now superseded by Wightman (2006), but still useful if the later work if not available. Provides two keys, one for field use (based on vegetative characters) and one for herbarium use (requiring fertile material). The fold-out identification chart is a very useful adjunct. Contains descriptions and line drawings of all species, and includes all plants of mangrove type (so relevant species of ferns, palms, and grasses are treated). Brief introductory sections cover floristics, conservation, biogeography.

 

Wightman G (2006) Mangroves of the Northern Territory, Australia – identification and traditional use. (Northern Territory Botanical Bulletin no. 31). Dept of natural resources, Environment & the Arts / Greening Australia NT , Darwin NT. 168 pp. ISBN 0724548769; ISSN 03141810.

This field guide actually covers all 51 plants that consistently occur in the mangrove communities of the NT, including the herbaceous species as well as the shrub and tree mangroves (supplemented by a further list of occasionals). The core 51 are keyed, and given good technical descriptions and extensive notes, including names in Aboriginal languages and outlines of traditional uses, with good line illustrations.

 

Williams JB & Harden, GJ (1979) A field guide to the mangroves of New South Wales.  University of New England, Armidale, NSW.  7 pp.  ISBN 0858342847.

Short key, with descriptions and line drawings.

 

 

 

MARINE PLANTS and MARINE ALGAE

(see also Sea-shore Plants) 

 

Baldock RN et al. (2010-2015) Identification factsheets of the marine benthic flora (Algae) of South Australia. State Herbarium of South Australia. [Part of the eFlora SA website].

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE (directory page and free PDF downloads): http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/algae_revealed/index.shtml

Comprising many taxonomically based separate PDF files, this identification system combines standard printed dichotomous keys with a heavily pictorial element (no separate text treatments of species apart from the key wording). A minimum of technical terms are used, and those that are, are well explained by illustration. A low-tech approach to getting out a very practical identification tool for a large and comples group of organisms.  RECOMMENDED

 

Bennett I (1987) Australian Seashores. Angus & Robertson. 411 pp. ISBN 0207155615.

An updated version of WJ Dakin’s classic field guide to sea-shore life. The chapter on ‘Seaweeds of the rocky ocean coast’ covers about 30 common or conspicuous species, with informative text and excellent colour photos. A good casual-interest resource.

 

Christianson IG, Clayton MN, & Allender BM  (1988)  Seaweeds of Australia. Reed Books, Frenchs Forest NSW. 112 pp. ISBN 0730102424.

Covers mainly the subtropical and temperate zones, with a few tropical species. 186 excellent colour photos, with very brief text. No keys. A good general-interest book.

                                                                                                                     

Coleman N  (2002)  Lord Howe Island Marine Park – sea shore to sea floor.  Neville Coleman’s Underwater Geographic Pty Ltd, Springwood, Qld.  96 pp. ISBN 0947325271.

Chapters on the algae and seagrasses, with small colour photos and brief notes.

 

Cowan R (ed.) (2006-ongoing) Australian Marine Algal Name Index (AMANI). Murdoch University and Commonwealth of Australia. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE: http://www.anbg.gov.au/amanisearch/servlet/amanisearch/index.html

A searchable database of the taxonomy (both accepted names and their synonyms), nomenclature and distribution of the Australian marine macro-algae and some of the marine protists.  Searches can be conducted on taxon name at any rank or on distribution.  As at July 2015, the last update to this site is shown as May 2006.

 

Cribb AB  (1996)  Seaweeds of Queensland – a naturalist’s guide.  Queensland Naturalists’ Club Inc., Brisbane. (Queensland Naturalists’ Club : Handbook No 2). 130 pp.  ISBN 0959560718.

Good colour photos and brief notes on 168 species (of the 600 or so in the State).

 

Cribb AB & Cribb JW (1985) Plant life of the Great Barrier Reef and adjacent shores.  University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Qld.  294 pp.  ISBN 0702219843.

Plain language species profiles, with good colour photos. Covers strand and dune plants, mangroves, some marine algae, and sea grasses.

 

Edgar GJ  (2012)  Australian marine life. Second edn.  Reed New Holland, Chatswood, NSW.  624 pp.  ISBN 9781921517174.

Covers both plants and animals, but with many common species of cyanobacteria and the algal groups, with brief sections on marine fungi, seashore lichens, the seagrasses, and seashore (mangrove and saltmarsh) land plants.  Excellent colour photos, with brief notes.

 

Huisman JM  (2000)  Marine plants of Australia.  University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands, WA / Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. 300 pp.  ISBN 1876268336.

Introductory sections on the history of Australian marine botany, the uses of marine plants, and techniques for collecting and displaying them. These are followed by over 300 species of cyanobacteria, the algal groups, and seagrasses, with good colour photos of selected species, many line drawings of diagnostic features, and brief descriptions and notes; no keys.

 

Huisman Phillips J, & Parker C (2006) Marine plants of the Perth region. Western Australia. Department of Environment and Conservation, Kensington, WA. 72 pp. ISBN-10: 0730755665; ISBN-13: 9780730755661. [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife].

Paperback pocket guide to a selection of the more common marine plants (sea-grasses and algae) of the region. Descriptions and colour photos.  [NOT SEEN].

 

Huisman JM (2006) Algae of Australia: Nemaliales. Algae of Australia Series.

CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). 164 pp. ISBN 9780643093782.

Documents the three families, 20 genera and 55 species of the red algae Order Nemaliales that occur in Australia (often conspicuous in the inter- and sub-tidal zones). A detailed introduction to the history, structure, reproduction and relationships of the order is followed by identification keys to families, genera and species, with comprehensive descriptions of each taxon. Includes practical guidance on the examination of specimens, and good colour photos and line drawings.

RECOMMENDED

 

Huisman JM (2015) Algae of Australia: Marine Benthic Algae of North-western Australia 1. Green and Brown Algae. Algae of Australia Series. CSIRO Publishing.

328 pp. ISBN 9781486304493.

An authoritative floristic account of the marine green and brown algae of north-western Australia including 68 genera and 171 species; detailed descriptions and diagnostic keys,illustrations, maps, photographs. RECOMMENDED

 

Huisman JM (2018) Algae of Australia: Marine Benthic Algae of North-western Australia 2. Algae of Australia Series. CSIRO Publishing. 688 pp. ISBN 9781486309542

Describes the 158 genera and 351 species of marine benthic red algae of north-western Australia. Iuustrations,maps,photographs. RECOMMENDED.

 

Huisman J (2015) Algae of Australia: Marine benthic algae of north-western Australia:  1. Green and Brown Algae. Algae of Australia Series. Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS), Canberra / CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne. 320 pp. ISBN: 9781486304493.

Covers 68 genera and 171 species. All taxa are described, with nomenclatural details, keys, and many good black and white line illustrations and photos, and more than 60 colour photos of species.  RECOMMENDED

 

Kraft GT (2007) Algae of Australia: Marine Benthic Algae of Lord Howe Island and the Southern Great Barrier Reef: 1. Green Algae. Algae of Australia Series.

Australian Biological Resources Study / CSIRO Publishing. 356 pp. ISBN 9780643094321.

A description of the habitats and biogeographic factors is foillowed by keys to and detailed descriptions of genera, and where these have more than one species a key to that level is also provided. 117 species are treated in total, some with subspecies, varieties, or forms. Good colour illustrations and a good glossary. RECOMMENDED

 

Kraft GT (2009) Algae of Australia: Marine benthic algae of Lord Howe Island and the Southern Great Barrier Reef:  2. Brown Algae. Algae of Australia Series. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). 370 pp. ISBN 9780643097377

Covers 7 orders, 12 families, 38 genera and 92 species, with an introduction to the islands, identification keys to genera and species, and a comprehensive description and discussion of each taxon. Many photos. RECOMMENDED

 

Littler DS & Littler MM  (2003)  South Pacific reef plants – a diver’s guide to the plant life of South Pacific coral reefs.  OffShore Graphics Inc., PO Box 6139, Washington DC 2004-6139, USA.  332 pp. ISBN 0967890195.

Keys and good plain-English descriptions, with brief habit and distribution notes, for many common of conspicuous species of the algal groups and seagrasses, with 440 excellent colour photos.

 

McCarthy PM & Orchard AE (eds) (2007) Algae of Australia: Introduction. Algae of Australia Series, ABRS. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study. 744 pp. ISBN 9780643093775.

Introductory volume to the authoritative Algae of Australia series. Includes essays on the classification of Australian algae, research history, fossil record, systematic relationships, ecology, biogeography and economic significance. Keys to the identification of the orders of algae are accompanied by an extensive bibliography, and 29 synoptic chapters provide an overview of the biology of the algal classes. Also includes colour photographs, line illustrations, and  a glossary of more than 1500 technical terms. RECOMMENDED.

 

National Herbarium of New South Wales (1999 – ongoing) Marine Algae.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/other1.htm

[also known as ‘Aussie Algae’ resource pages, http://www.aussiealgae.org/]

A miscellany of marina algal information, some of it assisting identification (e.g. species lists from 13 commonly collected NSW localities; and searchable image sets from Harvey’s Phycologia Australica and Australian exsccatae). Site now static (2015).

 

Sainty G, Hosking J,  Carr G, & Adam P (eds.) (2012) Estuary plants and what’s happening to them in south-east Australia. Sainty & Associates (www.sainty.com.au). 652 pp. ISBN 0958105538.

First half of the book is a field guide to estuarine areas, covering seagrasses, algae, mangroves, and lowmarsh and highmarsh plants. Second half is on ecology and management. No keys, but excellent colour photos and good plain-language descriptions. RECOMMENDED

 

Waycott M, McMahon K, Mellors J, Calladine A, & Keline D  (2004)  A guide to tropical seagrasses of the Indo-West Pacific.  James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. 74 pp. ISBN 0864437279.

Easy-to-use pictorial key, and for each species a summary of distinctive features with good notes on taxonomy, ecology and reproduction, with colour photos and very good colour paintings.

 

Waycott M, McMahon K, & Lavery P (2013) A Guide to Southern Temperate Seagrasses.

CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic. 112 pp. ISBN: 9781486300150 pbk.

Describes the diverse seagrasses in the temperate parts of the southern hemisphere. Introductory sections on their evolution, biology and ecology, followed by a visual key for species identification, using easily observed features. Detailed diagnostic information on each species or species-complex, with distribution maps and brief notes on taxonomy, reproduction and ecology. High- to variable quality colour illustrations photos. RECOMMENDED

 

Western Australian Herbarium (ongoing) Florabase. Department of Parks and Wildlife – WA Herbarium. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE:

http://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/marineplants/

Western Australia’s plant information system Florabase includes variable levels of information on species of marine angiosperms and the red, green, and brown alagae and cynanophyta.

 

Wheeler J & Chalmers L (1997) Native vegetation of estuaries and saline waterways in south Western Australia. Water & Rivers Commission, East Perth.  32 pp.  ISBN 0730972451.

Useful booklet covering 28 species of emergent and waterside plants. Short descriptions, useful line drawings.

 

Wilson A (ed.) (2011) Flora of Australia. Volume 39 – Alismatales to Arales. Flora of Australia Series. Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS) / CSIRO Publishing. 320 pp. ISBN: 9780643104235 hbk, 9780643104242 pbk.

This volume of the Flora of Australia series covers 17 vascular plant families (76 genera and 256 species), some with a high proportion of marine and coastal aquatic, semi-aquatic, or strand species, including the Sea-grass families Posidoniaceae, Cymodoceaceae, and Zosteraceae. Keys to genera and species, nomenclature, descriptions, distribution statement and map, and habitat information. RECOMMENDED

 

Womersley HBS  (1984-2003) The marine benthic flora of southern Australia. 

  • (1984) Part 1: Chlorophyta and seagrasses. DJ Woolman, SA Government Printer, Adelaide.  329 pp. ISBN 0724345523.

Covers the marine Green Algae (Chlorophyta) and vascular plants (in this context seagrasses).

  • (1987) Part II: Phaeophyta and the genus Vaucheria of the Chrysophyta. DJ Woolman, SA Government Printer, Adelaide. 484 pp. ISBN 072436501X.

Covers the Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) and one genus of the Golden Algae (Chrysophyta).

  • (1994) Part III A – Rhodophyta: Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (the orders Acrochaetiales, Nemaliales, Gelidiales, Hildebrandiales, and Gigartinales sensu lato). Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. 508 pp. ISBN 0642198071.

The Red Algae (Rhodophyta) in part.

  • Part III B – Rhodophyta: Gracilariales, Rhodomeniales, Corallinales and Bonnemaisoniales. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. 392 pp. ISBN 0642248494.

The Red Algae (Rhodophyta) continued.

  • Part III C – Ceramiales: Ceramiaceae, Dasyaceae. State Herbarium of South Australia, Adelaide. 535 pp. ISBN 0730862151.

The Red Algae (Rhodophyta) continued.

  • Part IIID. Ceramiales — Delessariaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS) / State Herbarium of South Australia. 533 pp. ISBN  9780642568267 

The Red Algae (Rhodophyta) continued and concluded.

This exhaustive work provides identification keys, nomenclatural and distributional information, and detailed species descriptions. Many line drawings of diagnostic cellular structures and good halftones of complete plants and reproductive structures. RECOMMENDED in conjunction with the more recent ABRS resources listed here.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE, free html downloads.

A digitised version of all volumes, parsed into fact-sheet format but retaining the full technical text, and accessed via a master list of scientific names, is available on the eFlora SA website (http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/algae_flora/The_Marine_Benthic_Flora_of_SA_static_index.shtml)

 

 

 

MISTLETOES

 

Barlow BA (1984), Loranthaceae, Viscaceae; in George, AS (exec. ed.) Flora of Australia. Volume 22. Rhizophorales to Celastrales. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 239 pp. ISBN 0644028629.

Now dated, but still the only comprehensive national treatment. Short descriptions and notes, full keys to taxa, and basic line illustrations. This volume also covers some other important parasitic and hemi-parasitic families (e.g. Santalaceae).

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE: Flora of Australia Online: Content of this printed Flora of Australia volume is available in searchable database form at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/ .

 

Charles Sturt University Virtual Herbarium (ongoing) On-Line Mistletoe Guide.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE – some interactivity): http://www.csu.edu.au/herbarium/

Scanned images of all specimens held in the CSU Herbarium (14 taxa as at Aug. 2015), mostly from eastern and central NSW, plus articles describing recent research and general information on mistletoes.

 

Lithgow MG (2005) Some mistletoes and other semiparasitic shrubs. Chinchilla Field Naturalists Club Inc. (PO Box 368, Chinchilla Qld 4413). 80 pp. No ISBN.

Brief descriptions and notes on 23 species in the Loranthaceae and Viscaceae families, and six species of the root-parasitic Santalaceae. Line illustrations of all, and colour photos of most.

 

Moss JT & Kendall R (2016) The Mistletoes of subtropical Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Butterefly and Other Invertebrates Club Inc., Runcorn, Qld. 134 pp. ISBN 0975233548, 9780975233542.

[Not seen for evaluation].

 

Watson D (2011) Mistletoes of southern Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collinwood, Vic. 188 pp. ISBN 9780643095939 (pbk); 9780643100831 (eBook); 9780643102255 (ePub).

Detailed descriptions and notes on the 46 species in Viscaceae and Loranthaceae that occur in southern Australia, with fair to good colour photos and good watercolours by Robyn Hulley, plus chapters on biology, ecology, and cultural significance. No keys.

 

 

MOSSES – see under CRYPTOGAMS

 

 
MYRTACEAE – (i) Eucalypts

Note:  The eucalypts are a very large group that have undergone much research in recent decades, with many new species described and a national consensus on recognition of Corymbia (the Bloodwoods) as a separate genus. The most recent and authoritative publications are therefore strongly recommended for serious identification.

 

Bale CL (1992) Eucalypts and angophoras of the north coast of New South Wales : a key to the indigenous species. Botany Department, University of New England, Armidale, NSW.  39 pp.  ISBN 1863890009.

Covers the region from Taree north to the border, and west to 800 m altitude. Good key with descriptive information, and excellent line drawings.

 

Bower C, Semple B, & Harcombe L (2002)  Eucalypts of the central west of NSW. 2nd edition. [NSW] Dept of Land & Water Conservation, Orange, NSW. 60 pp. ISBN 073475258X.

A key to semi-natural groups, then good plain-English descriptions with black and white photos of leaves and small line drawings of fruits, plus very general information on distribution, phenology and habitat.

 

Brooker MIH & Kleinig, DA (various dates) Field guide to eucalypts. Inkata Press, Melbourne, Vic. & Bloomings Books, Hawthorn, Vic. (3 vols.) ISBN set 1876473517

Keys to species, short descriptions, and a good glossary. Good colour photos for each species, showing flowers, buds, fruits, whole tree, etc. Annoyingly, Angophora is omitted, and Eucalyptus is treated in the broad sense (i.e. including Corymbia, the Bloodwoods, now recognised as a separate genus by most other authorities). This nevertheless remains the best printed work for national scale coverage and reliable keys, although superseded by recent versions of the electronic interactive Euclid key (see Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research 2014, below).

  • Vol . 1. South-eastern Australia. 3rd (2006) Bloomings Books, Melbourne, Vic. 356 pp.  ISBN 1876473525.

Covers the area south-east of the Darling-Murray river system, including Tasmania;

  • 2. South-western and southern Australia. 2nd edn. (2001) Bloomings Books, Melbourne, Vic. 428 pp.  ISBN 1876473282.

Covers semi-arid NSW, South Australia, and the southern half of WA.;

  • 3. Northern Australia. (2004) Bloomings Books, Melbourne. 383 pp.  ISBN 1876473487.

Covers the tropics and the northern part of the semi-arid zone.

 

Brooker I, Connors, J & Slee, A (2002) EUCLID : eucalypts of southern Australia.

See under Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research (2014) EUCLID, below.

 

Brooker I & Kleinig D (2012) Eucalyptus: an illustrated guide to identification. Reed New Holland, Chatswood NSW. 230 pp. ISBN 9781921517228.

A boiled-down version of the same authors’ three-volume work (see above), this covers 200 of the most common species of eucalypt from all over Australia, with brief diagnostic descriptions and good colour photos. A tabulated key with easy characters allows placement of a specimen against one or several possible species. The genus Angophora is not included, and these authors treat Corymbia (the Bloodwoods, recognised as a separate genus by most others) as within Eucalyptus; the Corymbia names are provided in the text, but are not separately indexed. Nevertheless, a good guide for general users in most areas.

 

Brooker I & Nicolle D (2013) Atlas of leaf venation and oil gland patterns in the Eucalypts. CSIRO Publishing. 232 pp. ISBN  9780643109858.

Aid to the identification of eucalypts in the field. Standardises leaf venation and oil gland terminology, and details the visible features of the fresh adult leaves of eucalypts as seen with reflected and transmitted light. All genera, sections, series and subseries are represented.

Colour photographs

 

Carr D (2010) Field guide to the trees and tall shrubs of the North-West Slopes. 2nd edition.

Greening Australia, Armidale, NSW.  89 pp. [ISBN lacking?]

Spiral bound guide to the eucalypts of the area and a variety of shrubs. Simple diagrammatic key to groups. Brief plain-language descriptions with diagnostic line illustrations and some colour photos.

 

Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research (2014) EUCLID  – Eucalypts of Australia. Third revised edition. [Flash Drive interactive]. CSIRO Publishing.  ISBN: 9781486301973. 

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: INTERACTIVE (flash-drive). See https://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/euclid3/ for features, sample, and purchase.

Comprehensive interactive identification system for all 894 taxa in Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora, running on the user-friendly Lucid platform. This system enables a fair chance at species identification even if only fragmentary material is available. Fact sheets for each species include a botanical description, nomenclature, distributional and ecological information (not very detailed), and notes on relationships, diagnostic features and confusable species. Over 9000 high-quality colour images, covering all the main features of each species.

RECOMMENDED.  The 2006 DVD version of this edition is still in wide use.

An earlier version of the original Euclid electronic product was published as: Brooker I, Connors, J & Slee, A (2002) EUCLID : eucalypts of southern Australia. 2nd edn. CSIRO, Collingwood, Vic;  (1 CD-ROM),  ISBN 0643068368; this covered 690 species with correspondingly fewer images, and is now well out of date.

 

Chippendale GM, in George AS (exec. ed.) (1988) Flora of Australia. Volume 19. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus, Angophora. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 540 pp. ISBN 0644058668.

This was a deliberately conservative treatment at the time of publication, as there was much work in progress, and it is now drastically outdated due to the description of many more species, a better sub-generic classification, and the separation of Corymbia (the bloodwoods). This contains keys and descriptions for the 513 species recognised at the time, with many good line drawings.

 

Clarkson J (2009) A field guide to the eucalypts of the Cape York Peninsula Bioregion. Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management, Mareeba, Qld. 110 pp. ISBN 9311662182647.

Spiral-bound and field-hardy guide, covering all 41 eucalypt (Eucalyptus and Corymbia) species and subspecies of the region, arranged by bark type, with treatments of each covering diagnostic features, confusable species, with detailed distribution maps and good line drawings of buds, fruits and leaves.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: a CD-ROM version was also published; availability uncertain.

 

Duncan F (1996) A field key to Tasmanian species of eucalypts. Tasforests vol 8 (December 1996); Forestry Tasmania.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE: (PDF): a stand-alone PDF version is at:

https://www.fpa.tas.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/110474/tas_eucalypt_key.pdf  

A field key for identification of Tasmania’s 29 native eucalypts, with attention to infraspecific variation, hybrids, and clinal forms. Only one species is (line-)illustrated

 

Floyd AG (1958) Field identification of seedlings of the major tree species in the Blackbutt and Flooded Gum areas. Forestry Commission of N.S.W., Division of Forest Management: Research Note no. 1.

The region of coverage is the North Coast of NSW. Two dichotomous keys are provided for the identification of seedlings of ten tree species (eight of them eucalypts), at cotyledonary stage (c. 1 month) and up to about 1.3m height (c. 12 months), followed by a tabulation of features at both stages for each species.

 

French M (2012) Eucalypts of Western Australia’s wheatbelt. [Self-publ. by author: www.eucalyptsofwa.com.au, email MEF@eucalyptsofwa.com.au] 356 pp. ISBN 9780646590660.

Covers all 159 species of eucalypt known to occur in the wheatbelt, with short but detailed descriptions and a wealth of notes and good distribution maps. Good to excellent colour photos (1300 in all) show habit and some of the diagnostic features for each species; however juvenile foliage, in cases where photos are lacking, is shown by colour paintings and these are not always at a useful level of detail.

 

 French ME (1997) The special eucalypts of Perth and the south-west. F&N publications, Perth, WA.  208 pp.  ISBN 064629394X.

Covers 72 species native to the area and 33 popular introduced species, with fair-quality colour photos, brief plain-English descriptions, and notes.

 

Hancock N (2015) Mallees of the Southern Mallee District of South Australia: a ute guide. [Self publ.by author, nolahancock@hotmail.com]. 51 pp. ISBN 9780646932996.

Field-hardy spiral bound guide to mallee eucalypts of the Lameroo-Parilla-Pinaroo area in the Murraylands/Murray Mallee region, but also useful further afield in SA and in adjacent areas of Victoria. Only eight species are keyed and illustrated (in excellent colour photos), with supplementary comparison tables of the features of pairs of confusable species.  A further six species, less common in the area, are briefly mentioned, with fruit illustrations.

 

Hunter JT (2015) Eucalypts of the Northern Tablelands. 2nd edition. John T Hunter. 200 pp. ISBN lacking.

An extended dichotomous key (and embedded short descriptions) for all known Eucalyptus species (but not Corymbia and Angophora) on the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales.  Every key lead and terminal taxon is illustrated by colour images. [Not fully evaluated but looks good].

 

Klaphake V (2010) Eucalypts of the Sydney Region. 2nd edition. Self-publ. (Van Klaphake, 470 Bulli Creek Rd, Byabarra  NSW 2446, ph 02 6587 1210).   128 pp. [No ISBN].

Treats all 137 species (Eucalyptus, Corymbia, Angophora) of the region from Nowra to Newcastle and west to Orange and Denman. Simple keys, with good line illustrations of each species and minimal notes. Good colour illustrations of bark types.

 

Leighton P & Moir P (1996) Eucalypts of the Wellstead district. Wellstead Historical & Heritage Committee, WA. 102 pp..  No ISBN.

Plain-English descriptions of 45 local species of this small area on the WA south coast, with very basic line drawings.

 

Leonard G (2007) Eucalypts of the Sydney region – a bushwalkers guide. UNSW Press. 82 pp. ISBN 9780868408620.

Pocket/backpack guide to 80 of the more common eucalypt species from Nowra to Newcastle and inland to the western Blue Mountains. Brief descriptive and other notes; fair to good line drawings and colour photos.

 

McMahon, DS (1990) Eucalypts for enthusiasts : a guide to the identification of eucalypts found in south-eastern Australia. D.S. McMahon, Fitzroy, Vic.  128 pp.  ISBN 0646023721.

Pocket-sized field guide, with friendly semi-pictorial (buds and fruits) keys to a selection  of over 300 species. The taxonomy is now significantly dated in several groups, but this remains a good example of a non-technical handbook for casual users.

 

Nicolle D (1997) Eucalypts of South Australia. D. Nicole, Morphett Vale, SA.  208 pp.  ISBN 0646327437.

Treats 95 species, several of which have not previously been illustrated in colour. Recognises Corymbia (bloodwoods and ghost-gums) as distinct from Eucalyptus. Good plain-English notes and descriptions, excellent quality colour photos.Now superseded by the on-line delivered Flora of SA treatment (Nichole 2014, see below), but remains useful.

 

Nicolle D (2006) Eucalypts of Victoria and Tasmania. Bloomings Books, Melbourne. 310 pp. ISBN 1876473606.

Covers all 141 species known for these States at the time of publication, with thorough descriptions and notes and excellent colour photos. Includes a good key to all species.

 

Nicolle D (2014) Myrtaceae (partly) (version 1). In: Kellermann, J. (ed.), Flora of South Australia (edition 5). State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide. www.flora.sa.gov.au/ed5. 102 pp. ISBN lacking.

ELECTRONIC (only) RESOURCE: ON-LINE: free PDF:

As at July 2015, this interim version of the Flora of South Australia chapter on Myrtaceae only covers the eucalypt genera Angophora, Corymbia and Eucalyptus. Further genera are in preparation. Standard flora treatment: full keys to genera and species, short descriptions, distributions, conservation status, very brief general notes, and good diagnostic line illustrations. RECOMMENDED

 

Page M (1998) The eucalypts of Tasmania. M. Page, Launceston, Tas.  75 pp.  ISBN 0646351982

Covers 29 species, these being most or all of those native to Tasmania. Short plain-English descriptions with fair-quality colour paintings and a few colour photos of habit of some species. No keys.

 

Podberscek M (1993) Field guide to the eucalypts of the Gympie, Imbil and Maryborough Forestry Districts. Department of Primary Industry, Brisbane, Qld. (Information series 193019)  114 pp.  ISBN 072425367X.

Keys and descriptions to 39 species of the area; each description is illustrated with poor quality (but generally adequate) black and white collaged photos. Unfortunately excludes Angophora.

 

Pryor LD (1981) Australian endangered species : eucalypts. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra. (Special publication 5)  139 pp.  ISBN 0642896798.

Black and white photos (whole tree) only. Of historical interest only.

 

Queensland Herbarium (2004)  Key to eucalypts of greater Brisbane. 2nd edition.  Queensland Environmental Protection Agency. No ISBN.

A3 fold-out brochure; a useful illustrated key to 40 local species. Free download, follow link from https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/plants-animals/plants/herbarium/publications/

 

Slattery BJ, Perkins E,& Silver B (2016) Eucalypts of the Mount Alexander region. Friends of the Ironbark Forests, Mount Alexander Region. 96 pp. ISBN 0646960059, 9780646960050.

Field guide to the eucalypts of the northern flank of the Great Divide in Victoria. Each spcies illustrated with line drawings and colour images, with plain-English descriptions.

 

Thomson BG & Kube PD (1990). Arid Zone eucalypts of the Northern Territory. (NT Botanical Bulletin no. 9). Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Alice Springs, NT. 79 pp. ISBN 0724519238; ISSN 03141810. A free PDF formerly available at http://www.lrm.nt.gov.au/plants-and-animals/herbarium/identifying-plants is nolonger at that site; its content is assumed to have been incorporated into the online FloraNT (http://eflora.nt.gov.au/).

The hardcopy is now very dated, but covers 29 species of eucalypts from the NT arid zone, with a good key, brief descriptions and notes, good line drawings of diagnostic features, and colour photos of habit..

 

Williams JB (1982) New England eucalypts : a key to the indigenous species. University of New England Press, Armidale, NSW.  28 pp.  ISBN 0858343762.

Now very dated. An easy key, well-illustrated with line drawings, leads to short descriptions, with common name, scientific name, and brief notes on habitat and distribution. 55 species are illustrated.

 

Wiltshire R & Potts B (2007)  Eucaflip: life-size guide to the eucalypts of Tasmania. School of Plant Science (University of Tasmania) and Cooperative Research Centre for Forestry. ISBN 9781862953970.

A laminated (field-hardy) map-sized document that folds down to long-pocket size or doubles as an educational poster. Pictorial guide for identification of the State’s 29 native eucalypt species, illustrating diagnostic features (fruit, buds, bark and leaves) with excellent colour images of adult and juvenile foliage, buds, and fruits, plus distribution maps.

 

 

MYRTACEAE (ii) Non-Eucalypts

 

Bean AR (1992) The genus Leptospermum Forst. et Forst. f. (Myrtaceae) in Northern Australia. Austrobaileya 3(4): 643—660.

Key and descriptions for species of Queensland, Northern Territory, and WA north of Shark Bay. Austrobaileya journal is published by the Queensland Herbarium (see https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/plants-animals/plants/herbarium/publications/).

 

Blake TL (1981) A guide to Darwinia and Homoranthus. Society for Growing Australian Plants, Maroondah Group, Vermont, Vic.  88 pp.  ISBN 0909830150.

Descriptions and supplementary information, including historical and cultivation notes. Many line drawings and some colour plates.

 

Brophy JJ, Craven LA, Doran JC (2013) Melaleucas: their botany, essential oils and uses. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra / Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra. 415 pp. ISBN 9781922137517 (print, pbk), 97811922137524 (on-line).  ISSN 10318194 (print), 1447090X (on-line).

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE, free PDF: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267736793_Melaleucas_Their_Botany_Essential_Oils_and_Uses

A conspectus of Melaleuca in the current (2015-9) sense, i.e. including the genus Callistemon (a table of synonyms is included). This work does not provide keys, but does provide a full-page treatment of each of the nearly 300 species, with short botanical descriptions, distribution map, notes on ecology and the essential oil chemical composition, and a single colour photo.

 

George EA (2002) Verticordia : the turner of hearts. University of Western Australia Press, Crawley, WA.  422 pp.  ISBN 1876268468.

Includes classification and keys to the species, brief descriptions, and notes on distribution, habitat and cultivation, all supplemented for each species by fine watercolour paintings and diagnostic line illustrations by Margaret Pieroni.

 

Holliday I (1989) Melaleucas : A field and garden guide. 2nd ed. Reed New Holland, Frenchs Forest, NSW.  328 pp.  ISBN 1876334983..

Covers 219 recognised species (plus subspecies and a few horticultural varieties), but excludes those currently recognised under Callistemon (pending merger of the two genera). Short descriptions and notes with fair to excellent colour photos; no keys. Previously issued, with fewer species as (1989) A field guide to Melaleuca (Hamlyn, Port Melbourne, Vic., 254 pp.,  ISBN 0947334092), and  (1997) A field guide to melaleucas, Volume 2, I Holliday, Adelaide (64 pp.,  ISBN 0646311743).

 

Kellermann J (ed.) (in prep.) Myrtaceae (in part): In: Flora of South Australia (edition 5). State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide: www.flora.sa.gov.au/ed5.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE (pending)

As at July 2015, the non-eucalypt section of Myrtaceae has not been completed, but will be added in the future. Format will be standard flora treatment: full keys to genera and species, short descriptions, distributions, conservation status, very brief general notes, and good diagnostic line illustrations. RECOMMENDED when it lands.

 

Thompson J (1989) A revision of the genus Leptospermum (Myrtaceae). Telopea, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 301-448. Royal Botanic Gardens,Sydney.  ISSN 0312-9764.

A fairly technical paper, with an overview of the distribution and morphology of the group, keys to species, and species descriptions.

 

Wrigley JW & Fagg M (1993) Bottlebrushes, paperbarks and tea trees : and all other plants in the Leptospermum alliance. Angus and Robertson, Pymble, NSW.  352 pp.  ISBN 0207168679.

A good concise roundup of the leptospermoid members of the family. Short introductory chapters on the family, the alliance, and cultivation; these are followed by a listing of all known species (and cultivars or ornamental hybrids). The genus profiles are useful. Each species is given a one-paragraph description and brief notes on cultivation, plus derivation of name and conservation code. Distribution information is inadequate, being limited in most cases to a dot on a map of Australia. Selected species are illustrated with very good colour photos. No identification keys.

 

 

 

ORCHIDS (Orchidaceae)

 

Our understanding of Australia’s rich orchid flora (over 1200 species) is rapidly evolving, with active research and new species published every year – hence older books become dated rather quickly. The taxonomy of the Australian orchids is also somewhat contentious, with some researchers preferring to split certain large genera (e.g. Pterostylis, Dendrobium, Caladenia) into several smaller genera. As a result there is much discordance between some recent works in the generic names that they use, even though they do mostly agree on the validity of the species themselves. The Australian Plant Census (APC) website (https://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/) may be of assistance in navigating the synonyms.

Backhouse G & Jeanes J (1995) The orchids of Victoria. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Vic.  388 pp.  ISBN 052284393X.

Keys to genera and species; short descriptions with notes; fair to good colour photos.Now very out of date, superseded by Backhouse et al.(2016), q.v.


Backhouse G (2011) Spider Orchids: the Genus Caladenia and its Relatives in Australia. https://bushorchids.weebly.com, Seaford, Vic. 844 pp. ISBN: 978-0-9946489-1-4. Available as EBook PDF on DVD-ROM or USBstik, in large or small file-size options for different devices.

Comprehensive guide to the genus Caladenia and its relatives and segregates (Adenochilus, Cyanicula, Ericksonella, Eriochilus, Glossodia, Elythranthera, Leptoceras, Pheladenia and Praecoxanthus) in the subtribe Caladeniinae in Australia; 395 species and subspecies plus 143 naturally occurring hybrids. Brief but diagnostic descriptive text for each taxon, with distribution maps, notes, and good multiple colour images (over 7,800 images in total, showing habit, flower, and variation in colour-phase and features).  No keys, but multi-species image plates allow some comparative identification.

 

Backhouse G, Kosky B, Rouse D, & Turner J (2016) Bush gems: a guide to the wild orchids of Victoria, Australia. https://bushorchids.weebly.com, Seaford, Vic.

855 pp. ISBN 9780994648907. Available as EBook PDF on DVD-ROM or USBstik, in large or small file-size options for different devices.

Covers all 400 or so species known from Victoria, with brief but diagnostic descriptive text, distribution maps, notes, and good multiple colour images (over 7,000 images in total, showing habit, flower, and variation in colour-phase and other features).  No keys, but multi-species image plates allow some comparative identification.

 

Banks D & Riley J  (2002)  Orchids of Australia – limited edition. University of NSW Press, Kensington NSW. 324 pp. ISBN 0868404543.

A deluxe ($395) edition of Riley & Banks 2002 (q.v.), with each species having one full-colour page of artwork and one of notes.

 

Bates RJ & Weber JZ (1990) Orchids of South Australia. Government Printer, Adelaide. (Handbook of the flora and fauna of South Australia)  182 pp.  ISBN 0724365885.

Introductory short sections on ecology, conservation, cultivation, history of study, morphology, pollination, and mycorrhiza. Keys are provided to the genera and species, with brief descriptions and habitat/distribution notes, and line drawings and good colour photos.

 

Bates RJ (2009) Native orchids of South-Western Australia. Edition 1. Native Orchid Society of South Australia Inc. (PO Box 565, Unley SA 5061; email nossa.enquiries@gmail.com; website with purchase details http://nossa.org.au/products/.

537 pages, covering 268 orchid species. [NOT SEEN]

 

Bates RJ (2011) South Australia’s native orchids. [DVD] Native Orchid Society of South Australia Inc. (PO Box 565, Unley SA 5061; email nossa.enquiries@gmail.com; website with purchase details http://nossa.org.au/products/). ISBN 9780987161703. 

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: DVD-ROM (Format is one long bookmarked PDF file).

Covers approx. 350 species (all the known SA species at time of publication), with short descriptions, synonymies, notes on distribution and habitat, conservation status, and variable quality images (some very good). Chapters on orchid biology, ecology and cultivation. No keys.

 

Bedford RB (1969) A guide to Australian native orchids. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.  134 pp.  ISBN 020795190X.

Despite the title, this covers epiphytic species only. Short descriptions with line drawings and a few colour paintings; no keys. Now very dated.

 

Bishop A (2000) Field guide to the orchids of New South Wales and Victoria. 2nd edn. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.  257 pp.  ISBN 0868407062.

Descriptions, keys, and good colour photos for more than 500 species.

 

Brown A (2007) Orchids of the South-West. Dept. of Environment and Conservation. 72 pp.

ISBN 9780730968931. [One of the Bush Books series, now distributed by WA Dept of BCA].

Paperback beginner’s guide to 33 of the orchids (out of c. 400), of the region south of a line Kalbarri to Esperance –  mostly the more common species, and a few rarer ones of note. Brief descriptions and notes plus colour photos.

 

Brown A, Dundas P, Dixon K, & Hopper S [2009] Orchids of Western Australia.

University of Western Australia Press, Crawley WA. 421 pp. ISBN 9780980296457

An art-work book, rather than a dedicated identification guide, covering 409 species for the State (including the Kimberley), with over 200 full-page watercolour illustrations – almost all are habit studies, not necessarily showing diagnostic detail. The descriptive text is very brief; some diagnostic features are noted. No keys.

 

Brown A, Dixon K, French C, Brockman G (2013) Field guide to the orchids of Western Australia : the definitive guide to the native orchids of Western Australia. Simon Nevill Publications, Floreat, WA. 513 pp. ISBN 9780980348149.

Covers 28 genera and 430 species of WA orchids, including more than a hundred phrase-named undescribed taxa. A text-table of features helps the user place a sample to genus, and a pictorial table of exemplar species helps to confirm this. A similar approach is taken within some of the larger genera to take you to complexes of species. There are no dichotromous keys. Species treatments are short and as plain-language as can be reasonably expected. Distinctive features are spelt out. The colour photos (at least two per species) are excellent. RECOMMENDED.

 

Burton E (2015) Orchids of the Hunter region.  [Self-publ. by the author, Woodberry NSW; purchase via http://kooragangwetlands.com/orchids-of-the-hunter-region/ or phone (02) 4964 9308].  184 pp. ISBN 9780646934242.

A pictorial guide to over 150 species from the region, arranged by genus but each species with colour-coded top margin of the page approximating the dominant flower colour. No keys and only descriptive brief text, but this includes diagnostic features for each species and some of these are arrowed on the images.  Flowering times are given, and some aspects of site-to-site variation are also captured in the images, which are locality-captioned. Competing scientific names are indicated in genera where nomenclature is not settled.

 

Collier P et al. (2010) Plant Identikit: Common orchids of Tasmania. Second edition. Australian Plants Society Tasmania Inc., Hobart Group. 65 pp.  ISBN 9780909830649.

Pocket-sized field guide to 72 species, with very brief descriptions and notes, sample localities, cultivation notes, and fair-quality colour illustrations.

 

Dacy ME [1987] Victorian orchids in habitat : an aid to their identification. The Author, Box Hill, Vic.  197 pp.  ISBN 0731619129.

Keys and descriptions, with line drawings and photos of critical parts of most taxa. The taxonomy and nomenclature is very dated.

 

Dixon KW, Buirchell B, & Collins MT (eds) (1989) Orchids of Western Australia : cultivation and natural history. 2nd edn. Western Australian Native Orchid Conservation Group, Victoria Park, WA.  68 pp. ISBN 0731692136

Not comprehensive and now very dated; descriptions and illustrations, some in colour.

 

Dockrill AW (1992, 1994) Australian indigenous orchids. The epiphytes, the tropical terrestrial species.  Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.  ( 2 vols.)  ISBN 0949524434 (set).

Vol. 1 (1992): 530 pp., ISBN 0949324442; Vol 2 (1994): 1062 pp., ISBN 0949324450.

Detailed descriptions and illustrations of all of the species in this category. Very outdated.

 

Drewe H, Durie K, & Lollback S (2012) Hassans Walls orchids – Lithgow. Lithgow & District Community Nursery (PO Box 492, Lithgow NSW 2790). 38 pp. ISBN 9780646579597.

Covers 62 species from one reserve; good colour photos, minimal text. Useful along the western fall of NSW’s Blue Mountains. Now superseded by the orchid coverage (73 for the same reserve) in Lollback et al. (2014) Native plants Hassans Walls Reserve Lithgow, from same publisher.

 

George AS & Foote HE [1971?] Orchids of Western Australia. Westviews, Perth.  28 pp.

Includes colour illustrations; not comprehensive, very dated..

 

Hoffman N & Brown A (2011) Orchids of south-west Australia. 3rd edition. University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands, WA.  513 pp.  ISBN 9780646562322.

Key to the genera, followed by short descriptions of 413 species with fair to good colour photos and distribution maps. Now somewhat dated, but still useful – it is superseded by Hoffman et al. 2019. The 2nd edition (1998, ISBN 1876268182) and a variant revised 2nd edition with supplement, are still around, but are now very out of date.

 

Hoffman N, Brown A, & Brown J (2019) Orchids of south-west Australia. 4th edition. [Self-publ., https://orchidswa.com.au]. 514 pp. ISBN 9780646999210 (s/bk), 9780646999920 (h/bk).

Updated edition with extra descriptions and colour images of more species (and hybrids),with notes on distribution,flowering period and habitat.

 

Jeanes J & Backhouse G (2006) Wild orchids of Victoria, Australia. Aquatic Photographics (PO Box 124, Seaford Vic 3198). 315 pp. ISBN 9780977537204, 097753720X.

Covers 360 species, with a key to genera, then brief descriptions of species, with 1400 mostly excellent colour photos. Largely superseded for comprehensiveness and currency of nomenclature by Backhouse et al. (2016), q.v.

 

Jones DL (1988) Native orchids of Australia. Reed, Frenchs Forest, NSW.  656 pp.  ISBN 0730101894.

Covers all recognised species at date of publication species, with 260 in colour photos and over 600 line drawings. No keys; good descriptions and colour plates. Near-comprehensive at time of publication but now out of date.

 

Jones DL (1991) New taxa of Australian Orchidaceae. Australian Orchid Foundation, Essendon, Vic. (Australian Orchid Research vol. 2)  207 pp.  ISBN 0959538461.

Over 100 new species described and illustrated.

 

Jones D, Wapstra H, Tonelli P, & Harris S (1999) The orchids of Tasmania. Miegunyah Press, Carlton South, Vic.  317 pp.  ISBN 0522848516.

Detailed descriptions of the 195 then-known species, with excellent colour photos, maps, best recognition characters, and notes. Includes two keys to genera, one using leaf characters only, and separate keys to species. Useful introductory chapter on habitats, conservation, and orchid terminology. RECOMMENDED

 

Jones D & Jones B (2000) A field guide to the native orchids of southern Australia. Blooming Books, Hawthorn, Vic.  278pp..  ISBN 187647324X. 

Not for definitive identification, as it covers only 268 species, mostly common or conspicuous; but this is a reasonable sample of species and is a good (and portable!) intermediate guide. Each species has plain-English descriptions and an excellent colour photo; no keys.

 

Jones DL & Clements MA (2002)  A review of Pterostylis (Orchidaceae). Australian Orchid Foundation, Essendon, Vic. (Australian Orchid Research vol. 4)  169 pp.  ISBN 0642549044.

A primary classificatory and nomenclatural work, technical and not providing identification information to species level, but erecting a number of new or reinstated genera within Pterostylis sens. lat.,  and creating many new species and name combinations. Background only.

 

Jones DL et al. (2006) Australian orchid genera: an information and identification system.

ABRS Identification Series. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic. / Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). ISBN-10: 0643093362; ISBN-13: 9780643093362.

 ELECTRONIC RESOURCE – INTERACTIVE: CD and ?Flash Drive versions.

Now out of print, but still in use. An illustrated interactive key and information system, running on the user-friendly LucID platform , for all 192 genera of Australian orchids recognised by these authors at the time of publication. A matrix of 127 morphological and geographical characters allows easy identification to genus level, with help notes and more than 2500 images to assist with the complex floral structure. Fact sheets are provided for each genus. While the identification tool only goes down to genus level, there is a list of all species names published to April 2006 with nomenclatural and census information.

 

Jones DL (2006) A complete guide to native orchids of Australia, including the island territories. Reed New Holland, Frenchs Forest, NSW. 496 pp. ISBN 1877069124.

Fully comprehensive as at date of publication, with short but detailed descriptions, and excellent colour photos. No keys. The author in this work uses a number of new genus names not necessarily taken up by other workers, but the name equivalents can be clarified easily from the index. Still the best single national-scope resource. RECOMMENDED

 

Jones DL (2008) Field guide to the orchids of the Australian Capital Territory. National Parks Association of the A.C.T. Inc. 288 pp. ISBN 9780980285420.

Comprehensive for the ACT at time of publication. Brief descriptions and notes, with good colour photos and line drawings. RECOMMENDED

 

Jones DL, Hopley T, & Duffy SM (2010) Australian tropical rainforest orchids. Version 1.1, December 2010. Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, Canberra.
ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE: INTERACTIVE
http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/orfk/index.html (free access; A Java update may be needed).

Running on the user-friendly Lucid software, this covers 224 species of orchids occurring north of a line approx. Townsville to Broome, in ‘tropical rainforest’ communities broadly defined – i.e. including lowland and montane forests and the drier rainforest scrubs and vine thickets of the NT and the Kimberley. RECOMMENDED

This information system is the ‘orchid module’ of Australian Tropical Herbarium & CSIRO Plant Industry (2010) Australian tropical rain forest plants, edition 6 – see Rainforest section of this bibliography.

 

Kangaroo Island Flora and Fauna Club Inc. [Overton B et al.] (2017) Native Orchids of Kangaroo Island: a field guide. Kangaroo Island Flora and Fauna Club Inc., Kingscote, SA. [Available via https://www.australianorchidfoundation.org.au/publications/]. 154 pp. ISBN 9780646972824.

Covers 68 of the 81 species recorded for KI (the remaining species are stated to be presumed extinct). Introductory material on orchid habitats, soil types, and flowering times; then each species has species has a double page with multiple photographs.

 

Kuiter RH (2010) Victoria’s small Caladenias. Aquatic Photographics, Seaford, Vic. [or via rudiekuiter@optusnet.com.au]. 36 pp. [No ISBN].

Covers 25 species, with notes on distribution, habitat, and variation, and multiple fair-quality colour images for each taxon showing habit, floral detail, and variation. Assumed to have been largely superseded by Kuiter (2013). [NOT SEEN]

 

Kuiter RH (2012) Victoria’s Orchids.  Quick-guide to: Sun Orchids, Greenhoods, Greencombs, Diuris, Mountain Spider-orchids, Hyacinths, Potato Orchids. Aquatic Photographics, Seaford, Vic. [or via rudiekuiter@optusnet.com.au]. 36 pp. [No ISBN].

A small selection  of species only are illustrated with fair to good colour photos and very brief notes.  OK for casual interest.

 

Kuiter RH (2013) Victoria’s spider orchids (2nd edition). Aquatic Photographics, Seaford, Vic. [or via rudiekuiter@optusnet.com.au]. 230 pp. [No ISBN].

Covers about 50 species of spider-orchids found in Victoria, each with multiple colour images and brief notes. [NOT SEEN]

 

Kuiter RH (2016) Victoria’s greenhoods and rustyhoods (2nd edition). Aquatic Photographics, Seaford, Vic. [or via rudiekuiter@optusnet.com.au]. 185 pp. [No ISBN].

Colour images and very brief descriptive and distribution notes for over 70 species of Greenhoods and Rustyhoods (Pterostylis sens.lat.) found in Victoria. A 3rd edition is pending for issue in mid-2019.

 

Kuiter RH (2016) Victoria’s cryptic orchids. Aquatic Photographics, Seaford, Vic. [or via rudiekuiter@optusnet.com.au]. 172 pp. [No ISBN]. 

Billed as a ‘comprehensive guide to selected terrestrial genera’ of  the less conspicuous orchids, including the Beard, Elbow, Onion, Midge, Duck, Horned, Tongue, Fringed Hare, Mosquito, Gnat, Bird and Helmet Orchids. Colour images and very brief notes. [NOT SEEN]

 

Kuiter RH (2017) Victoria’s summer orchids. Aquatic Photographics, Seaford, Vic. [or via rudiekuiter@optusnet.com.au]. 214 pp. [No ISBN].

Covers nearly 100 taxa of spring- and summer-flowering orchids, with excellent-quality images, substantial genus notes, and very brief species notes (main diagnostic features only). A 3rd edition is pending for issue in mid-2019.

 

Lavarack PS & Gray B (1985) Tropical orchids of Australia. Nelson, Melbourne.  177 pp.  ISBN 017065383.

Introduction chapters on habitats, cultivation, and conservation; treatments of selected species; fair to good colour photos. Out of date.

 

Lavarack PS & Gray B (1992) Australian tropical orchids. Frith and Frith Books, Malanda, Qld.  70 pp.  ISBN 0958994285.

Colour photos of 108 species, with brief notes; no keys. Out of date.

 

Lawrence R (2011) Start with the leaves: a simple guide to common orchids and lilies of the Adelaide Hills.  Heritage Bushcare [SA?]. 192 pp. ISBN 9780987188601.

A field guide to 50 mostly common orchids of the area, and also covering a number of non-orchid natives and weeds that can be confused with orchids. Arranged by leaf form, with fair to good colour photos and very brief notes.

 

Liddelow B (2006) Guide to native orchids of south western Australia. R&R Publications Australia Pty Ltd. 208 pp. ISBN 0958753245.

Not comprehensive (the 142 species chosen represent under half those in WA), but a useful cross-section. Very brief descriptions and notes, with fair-quality colour photos. Superseded by Liddelow (2015) below.

 

Liddelow B (2015) Guide to native orchids of south western Australia. 2nd edition. R&R Publications Australia Pty Ltd. 337 pp. ISBN 9780958753258.

A larger selection of species (239) than the first edition; descriptions, notes, colour images.

 

Natural Resources Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges and the Native Orchid Society of South Australia Inc. (2013) Common native orchids of the Adelaide Hills. Government of South Australia and Natural Resources Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: free poster download (PDF) from www.nossa.org.au.

30 species in colour photos in a two-sheet poster format, with brief descriptive notes, icons to illustrate leaf form and pollinator, and a chart of flowering months.

 

Riley JJ & Banks DP (2002) Orchids of Australia. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.  308 pp.  ISBN 0868405019.

A more affordable and practical recension of the deluxe Banks & Riley (2002), and projected as the first volume in a series. Large format. Distribution maps, distinguishing features, habitat, conservation status, full page hand drawn colour illustrations for 150 species, no keys.

 

Rupp HMR (1969) The orchids of New South Wales. National Herbarium of New South Wales, Sydney. (Flora of New South Wales no. 48).  177 pp.

Now of historical interest only. Facsimile of 1943 printing with supplement by DJ McGillivray.

 

Scott, J (2015) Orchids of Margaret River and Australia’s south-west capes. Cape to Cape Publishing (50 Harvest Rd, North Fremantle WA 6159).  152 pp. ISBN 9780992485122.

Covers 130 orchid species and natural hybrids occurring west of a line roughly Vasse to Augusta. No keys. Very brief descriptions accompanied by good to excellent colour photos.

 

Steenbeeke G (2002-) Orchidopaedia, volume 1 – genera.  Orkology Kreations, web http://members.dodo.com.au/~orkology/, email orkology@gmail.com.  CD-ROM. No ISBN. 

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, INTERACTIVE (CD-ROM).

 An early interactive identification tool assisting identification to generic level, this series of framed pages presents information about all 1016 natural genera of orchids (global),and all of the intergeneric hybrids (most of them artificial) up to 2002.  Over 400 genera have at least one image. Not comprehensively updated since then, and well out of date for recent developments in generic boundary recognition in Australia.

 

Stephenson AW (2011) Orchid species of the Shoalhaven, NSW Australia. Self-published (email orders to affine@tpg.com.au, or via

http://www.australianorchidfoundation.org.au/publications.html). 64 pp. ISBN 9780958167918.

Comprehensive field guide to orchids of the area, with 234 good colour photos and brief text.

 

Turner J, Bould A, & Wilkinson J (2018) Orchids of East Gippsland: a field guide. Revised edition. Bairnsdale & District Field Naturalists Club (order via http://www.bairnsdalefieldnaturalists.com.au/). 242 pp. ISBN 0992487714, 9780992487713.

Spiral-bound paperback guide with detailed information on more than 200 species (descriptions, flowering times, distribution, habitat, conservation status), each taxon with colour photographs. [NOT SEEN]. Supersedes the slightly thinner first edition of Turner, Bould & Wilkinson, 2014 (ISBN: 9780992487706), which had additional CD-ROM.

 

Upton WT (1989) Dendrobium orchids of Australia. Houghton-Mifflin, Knoxfield, Vic.  237 pp.  ISBN 086700521.

Plain-English descriptions and notes, with poor line drawings and a very few colour photos; now very dated.

 

Woolcock CE & Woolcock DT (1984) Australian terrestrial orchids. Nelson, Melbourne.  154 pp.  ISBN 0170062856.

Now very dated and fully superseded; short descriptions and good colour plates; no keys.

 

 

 

PALMS (Arecaceae)

 

Cronin L & Westmacott M (2000) Australian palms, ferns, cycads and pandans : key guide. Envirobook, Annandale, NSW.  190pp..  ISBN 0858811731.

First published in 1989 as Key guide to palms, ferns and allies.

Detailed, non-technical descriptions, with good quality colour paintings.

 

Dowe JL (2010) Australian palms: biogeography, ecology and systematics. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic. 290 pp. ISBN 9780643096158.

Comprehensive taxonomic treatment of all 60 species, including the offshore islands. Detailed descriptions and notes, good colour photos. RECOMMENDED

 

Jones DL (1996) Palms in Australia. 3rd edn. Reed Books, Port Melbourne, Vic.  278 pp.  ISBN 0730104907.

Morphology, cultivation, and descriptions and notes on species native to or grown in Australia. Many colour plates. RECOMMENDED

 

Rodd AN (1998) Revision of Livistona (Arecaceae) in Australia. Telopea vol. 8, no 1, pp. 49-154. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.  ISSN 0312-9764.

Technical paper describing and keying the 16 known species.

 

 

 

PEA-FLOWERS  (incl. Fabaceae and Caesalpiniaceae)

 

Craigie AI, Kellermann J, Lang PJ, Thompson IR, Weber JZ & Wilson PJ (2014) Fabaceae (Leguminosae) (partly) (version 2). In: Kellermann J (ed.), Flora of South Australia (edition 5). State Herbarium of South Australia, Adelaide.  www.flora.sa.gov.au/ed5. 87 pp. ISBN lacking.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE (only): ON-LINE: free PDF:

As at July 2015, this interim version of the Flora of South Australia chapter on Fabaceae only covers the tribes Bossiaeeae, Brongniartieae, Mirbelieae and Indigofereae. Other groups are in preparation. Standard flora treatment: full keys to genera and species, short descriptions, distributions, conservation status, very brief general notes, and good diagnostic line illustrations. RECOMMENDED

 

Hacker JB (1990) A guide to herbaceous and shrub legumes of Queensland. University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, Qld.  351 pp.  ISBN 0702222577.

A very useful guide, covering Fabaceae, Mimosaceae, and Caesalpiniaceae, with keys to genera and species, plus descriptions and distributions; includes toxicity data. Some colour photos of variable quality.

 

Orchard AE (exec. ed.) (1998) Flora of Australia. Volume 12. Mimosaceae (excl. Acacia), Caesalpiniaceae. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic. 213 pp. ISBN 064306298X (9780643062993).

Fully keyed with descriptions and notes, fair line drawings and a scattering of colour photos. The Senna treatment uses the ‘form taxon’ concept to designate some of the hybrid-origin morpho-taxa within some species complexes.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: Flora of Australia Online: Content of this printed Flora of Australia volume is available in searchable database form at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/ .

 

Rose H, Rose C, & Rose T (2011) Legumes and herbs of coastal NSW. NSW Dept of Industry & Investment. (Enquiries: Tocal College, Paterson NSW 2141; ph 02 4939 8888, email info@tocal.com). 196 pp. ISBN 9781742560656.

Ringbound field guide covering almost 180 common non-grass herbaceous species, including some ferns, sedges, rushes, pea-flowers and a wide variety of other families, arranged by flower colour. Short descriptive and other notes and fair quality colour photos.

 

The Australian Pea-Flowered Legume Research Group [R de Kok & E Biffin, eds] (2007) The Pea Key – an interactive key for Australian pea-flowered legumes.Version 1.0, November 2007. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research / ABRS, Canberra.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, ON-LINE INTERACTIVE.

http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/peakey/key/The%20Pea%20Key/Media/Html/index.html; free acess (a Java update may be required).

Unfortunately this seems to be a mothballed project, but up to date of publications is was a fully interactive key to all 1500 native and naturalised taxa, running on the user-friendly Lucid system. Each species has a fact-sheet with a detailed descriotion, distribution and habitat notes, discussion of related and confusable species, and references.  In the current version however only a few exemplar species have images (good colour photos and line drawings). RECOMMENDED subject to progressive obsolescence.

 

Thompson J (1993) A revision of the genus Swainsona (Fabaceae). Telopea, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 427-582. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.  ISSN 03129764.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE (PDF): http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/Telopea/index.php).

Technical revision with full-length descriptions and key; a few illustrations of critical features only.  Little has been published on the genus since, although there are a number of undescribed (phrase-name) taxa recognised – check with your State Herbarium.

 

Watson L & Dallwitz MJ (1993 onwards). The genera of Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae and Swartzieae: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval.  Latest version: 29 Nov. 2000.  No ISBN.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE: http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/caes/index.htm

An on-line, global identification and information system to generic level, drawing on a large DELTA database. The taxonomic content has not been significantly updated since 1985. The character list includes general morphology, seed chemistry and germination, leaf and wood anatomy, pollen fine structure, cytology, geographical distribution and taxonomic group. Morphological characters include some that are commonly overlooked (shoot organization, phyllotaxy, insertion of pinnae).

The treatment is now very dated as there has been substantial work in this major group, including many nomenclatural changes. All the genera accepted in Polhill & Raven (1981) are described, except in the Cassieae. Cassia is represented by a description of the genus sensu lato, rather than by Cassia sensu stricto; Senna and Chamaecrista are as advocated by Irwin & Barneby. Bauhinia is represented by two descriptions, one broad, one narrow. Given these limitations, the database is adequate for producing conventional dichotomous keys.  For routine identifications, recent State or regional floras are to be preferred.

 

Woolcock D (1989) A fieldguide to native peaflowers of Victoria and southeastern Australia.  Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW.  120 pp.  ISBN 0864172591.

A sample of 152 species from this broad region are described and illustrated, with 20 in colour. No keys are provided, but the genera are divided into three groups based on stamen features. Distribution is given by state, and (Victoria only) by region.

 

 

POISONOUS PLANTS

 

Everist SL (1981) Poisonous plants of Australia. Rev. edn. Angus and Robertson, London.  966 pp.  ISBN 0207142289.

Covers a large number of native and introduced taxa; now somewhat dated.

 

Jackes BR (1992)  Poisonous plants in northern Australian gardens. Botany Dept, James Cook University of North Queensland. 46 pp. ISBN 0864433875.

Basic descriptions and poison-properties information on 50 odd species or genera, with black and white photos.

 

McBarron EJ (1983) Poisonous plants : handbook for farmers and graziers. Inkata Press, Melbourne.  150 pp.  ISBN 0909605297.

Descriptions and line drawings.

McKenzie R (2012) Australia’s poisonous plants, fungi and cyanobacteria – a guide to species of medical and veterinary importance. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic. 950 pp. ISBN 9780643092679 (hbk).

Comprehensive full-colour guide to very many of the Australian taxa known to have poisonous properties (and with a supplementary list to the remaining ones not covered in detail). Descriptions, short but information-dense notes, and good colour photos. RECOMMENDED

 

O’Kane N (2009) Poisonous2pets. Plants poisonous to dogs and cats. Palmer Higgs Books. 320 pp. ISBN 9780980634808.

Covers a large number of species, with very good colour photos, brief descriptions and notes, and toxicity info.

 

Shepherd RCH (2004) Pretty but poisonous. Plants poisonous to people. An illustrated guide for Australia. RG & FJ Richardson, Meredith, Vic. 202 pp. ISBN 0958743991.

Brief descriptions, good colour photyos, and information on poison properties and symptomology, for a wide range of native, exotic weed, and exotic garden plant species (and three fungi).

 

Shepherd RCH (2010) Is that plant poisonous? An Australian field guide for livestock, pets and people. RG & FJ Richardson (PO Box 42, Meredith, Vic 3333; www.weedinfo.com.au). 250 pp. ISBN 9780980388527.

Covers 200 species of native and introduced plants known to be a poison risk, with brief descriptions and notes, toxicity information, and mostly good colour photos.

 

Wilson S (1997) Some plants are poisonous. Reed Books, Kew, Vic.  264 pp.  ISBN 0730105059.

Brief plain-English descriptions and impressionistic line and half-tone drawings. Useful but not definitive.

 

 

PROTEACEAE

 

Barker RM (2010) Australian Hakea species: identification and information. Version 1. State Herbarium of South Australia.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE,  ON-LINE, INTERACTIVE:

http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/lucid_keys/Hakea/index.shtml
An interactive key and information system running on the user-friendly Lucid platform. It has two components: an easy ‘Hakea or Grevillea?’ key to separate these often similar genera, and the main ‘Identification of Hakea species’ key (163 characters available to use) and associated fact-sheets for each species, with photos and line illustrations.  The fact-sheets are accessible either through the key or direct from the species list. The text is mainly drawn from the the Flora of Australia (vol. 17B) treatment of Barker, Haegi & Barker (1999) – see below under Orchard et al (eds). Notes are also provided on cultivation, and there is an extensive reference list. RECOMMENDED subject to some obsolescence.

 

Blombery AM & Maloney B (1992) The Proteaceae of the Sydney region. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW.  214 pp.  ISBN 0864174330.

A general interest guide to the species of the region, but  not comprehensive and fairly dated. No keys, but non-technical descriptions and a suite of three or four illustrations (fair quality photos and paintings) for each species.

 

Cavanagh T & Pieroni M (2006) The Dryandras. Bloomings Books, Richmond, Vic. 237 pp. ISBN 1876473541.

Comprehensive guide to 135 Dryandra taxa, with a good key, detailed descriptions of species, nlotes on distribution, habitat and cultivation, and good colour photos and line drawings.

 

Collins K, Collins K, and George A (2008) Banksias. Bloomings Books, Melbourne. 376 pp. ISBN 9781876473686 hbk, 9781876473587 pbk.

A comprehensive species guide to the 78 species of Banksia in the traditional sense (excluding Dryandra), with simple descriptions, notes on distribution, ecology and cultivation, and fair quality colour photos.

 

Dryandra Study Group (1996)  Illustrated key to Dryandra. Society for Growing Australian Plants, Dryandra Study Group. (Occasional publication no. 3)  19 pp.  ISSN 1320-6516.

A special edition of the Study Group Newsletter. Useful and accurate illustrated key, based on a then-recent revision of the genus, but now outdated.

 

George AS (1996) The Banksia book. 3rd edn. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW.  240 pp.  ISBN 0864178182.

Popular treatment of the whole genus (in the traditional sense, i.e. excluding Dryandra). Identification keys, descriptions, and colour plates showing whole plant and details.

 

George AS (1984) An introduction to the Proteaceae of Western Australia. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW.  112 pp.  ISBN 086417005X.

For general interest only; short descriptions and colour photos of selected species.

 

Harden GJ, Hardin DW & Godden DC (eds.) (2000)  Proteaceae of New South Wales. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.  204 pp.  ISBN 0868403024 

Extracted from the second edition of Volume 2 of the Flora of New South Wales, this contains keys, short descriptions, line illustrations and distribution information for all species of the family occurring in NSW. At least one species for each genus is illustrated by colour photo. Introductory sections cover the biology, evolution and ecology of the family.

 

Holliday I (2005) Hakeas. A field and garden guide. Reed New Hollanbd, Frenchs Forest, NSW.  224 pp. ISBN 1877069140.

Compact guide to all 148 species, simple descriptions and notes with mostly good colour photos and supplementary line drawings, plus cultivation notes.

 

Holliday I (2008) banksias. A field and garden guide. Third revised edition. Australian Plants Society (S.A. Region), Adelaide, SA. 192 pp. ISBN 9780980301311.

Covers all 77 species of Banksia (in the traditional sense, excluding Dryandra) known at the time of publication, plus cultivars. Simple descriptions plus notes on distribution and cultivation, with variable-quality colour photos.

 

Hollister C, Lander N, Thiele K, Butcher R (2011). Key to the Proteaceae of Western Australia. Department of Environment and Conservation, Kensington, WA.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE, interactive: http://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/keys/ 

Runs on the user-friendly Lucid3 system; a Java download may be required. Originally issued on CD-ROM.  Key to all species of the family in WA. [NOT FULLY EVALUATED]

 

Leighton P & North J [1994?] Banksias of the Wellstead district. [Wellstead Historical & Heritage Committee, Wellstead, WA] 52 pp. ISBN 0646180347.

Plain-English descriptions of 15 local species of this small area on the WA south coast, with good line drawings, local maps, and a colour photo for each species.

 

McGillivray DJ & Makinson RO (1993) Grevillea – Proteaceae : a taxonomic revision.  Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Vic.  465 pp.  ISBN 0522844391.

Monographic revision of the whole genus (including the non-Australian species), recognising 253 species with keys, descriptions, and many colour and line illustrations.  A weighty technical text, not a field guide, this is a continuing source of very accurate data, although now superseded for identification purposes as many species circumscriptions have changed and many new ones are now recognised (see Makinson 2000, and Olde & Marriott 1994-5).

 

Makinson RO (2000) in Orchard AE et al (exec. eds), Flora of Australia Volume 17a. Proteaceae 2 : Grevillea. Australian Biological Resources Study. CSIRO, Collingwood, Vic.  544 pp.  ISBN 0643059695 (9780643059696).

Comprehensive treatment of the Australian species and subspecies (recognising 452 taxa; a few new taxa have been described since, up to 2015). Includes keys to natural groups, species, and subspecies, with separate keys to species-groups for most States. Short descriptions with brief notes on distribution, ecology, variation and recognition. 64 species have colour photos and many more have line drawings. For field identification, this book used in conjunction with Olde & Marriott (1994-5) for the latter’s larger of colour photos of species recognised by them, will meet most needs.  RECOMMENDED

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: Flora of Australia Online: Content of this printed Flora of Australia volume is available in searchable database form at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/ .

 

Olde P & Marriott N (1994-95) The Grevillea book. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW.  (3 vols.)  ISBN 0864176163 (set)

A popular treatment of the genus. Volumes 2 (1995, 248 pp, ISBN 0864173261), and 3 (1995, 256 pp, ISBN 0864176112), describe 343 species, arranged alphabetically. Volume 1 (1994, 255 pp, ISBN 0864173253), gives botanical and historical background on the genus, horticultural notes, and a key to species. Best used in conjunction with Makinson (2000), as the latter is more recent and recognises more species and subspecies.

 

Orchard AE, exec. ed.  (1995) Flora of Australia. Volume 16. Elaeagnaceae, Proteaceae 1.  Australian Biological Resources Study. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood. Victoria.  522 pp. ISBN 0643056920.

Covers all Australian genera of Proteaceae except Grevillea (see Makinson 2000) and Hakea, Banksia, Dryandra, Musgravea and Austromuellera (see Orchard et al. 1999).  Comprehensive and authoritative national treatments with keys, descriptions, and synonymies, with a good selection of species illustrated in line drawings and at least one exemplar species of each genus as colour photos. RECOMMENDED

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: Flora of Australia Online: Content of this printed Flora of Australia volume is available in searchable database form at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/ .

 

Orchard AE et al, exec. eds. (1999) Flora of Australia. Volume 17B. Proteaceae 3: Hakea to Dryandra.  Australian Biological Resources Study. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood. Victoria.  416 pp. ISBN 0643064540.

Comprehensive and authoritative national treatments for Hakea, Banksia, Dryandra, Musgravea and Austromuellera,  with keys, descriptions, and synonymies, and a good selection of species illustrated in line drawings and some colour photos. RECOMMENDED

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: Flora of Australia Online: Content of this printed Flora of Australia volume is available in searchable database form at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/ .

 

Raleigh R [1996?] Hakeas. Society for Growing Australian Plants Victoria & Wimmera Growers of Australian Plants.  56 pp..

Set of notes prepared for SGAP field days, not formally published, but useful if you can get it, although now dated. Brief plain-English descriptions, plus crude but still helpful line drawings.

 

Sainsbury RM (1985) A field guide to Dryandra. University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands, WA.  119 pp.  ISBN 0855642343.

Non-technical descriptions, distribution maps, and colour photos of variable quality.

 

Sainsbury RM (1987) A field guide to Isopogons and Petrophiles. University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands, WA. 143 pp. ISBN 0855642688.

Non-technical descriptions, distribution maps, and colour photos of variable quality. Deals primarily with WA species; a few eastern species are included for comparison.

 

Sainsbury RM (1991) A field guide to smokebushes and honeysuckles (Conospermum and Lambertia). University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands, WA.  97 pp.  ISBN 1875560092.

Brief non-technical descriptions, distribution maps, and colour photos of variable quality. The sole east-Australian Lambertia is included, but the handful of eastern Conospermum taxa are unfortunately omitted.

 

Sankowsky GN & P. A. Radke, PA (1986) A field guide to the rainforest Proteaceae of North Queensland. The Authors, Tolga, Qld.  73pp.  [No ISBN].

A roneoed guide by local experts, with short descriptions and leaf outlines. Now superseded (see guides for the region in Rainforest section, and more recent material in this Proteaceae section).

 

Taylor A & Hopper S  (1991)  The Banksia atlas. Revised edn. (Australian Flora & Fauna Series No 8). Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 258 pp.  ISSN 08136726, ISBN 0644071249.

Not a full identification guide, and now very dated, this contain good information (much still valid) on distributions, population sizes, and ecology.

 

Wrigley JW & Fagg M (1989) Banksias, waratahs and grevilleas – and all other plants in the Australian Proteaceae family. Collins, Sydney.  584 pp.  ISBN 0732200202.

Not a definitive identification guide (not comprehensive, no keys, and somewhat dated), but a plain-English conspectus for general and horticultural interest. Short descriptions of most species. Interesting and useful concise chapters on history, cultural associations, propagation and horticulture. Numerous line drawings and some good colour photos.

 

Young J (1997) Hakeas of Western Australia – botanical district of Avon – the Wheatbelt.  WA National Parks & Reserves Association, Perth.  132 pp.  ISBN 0646343114.

Pocket-sized field guide. Easy descriptions and notes, with fair-quality line drawings and variable colour plates. Now superseded by Young (2006).

 

Young J (2000) Hakeas of Western Australia – botanical districts of Irwin and Darling –  the Northern Sandplains and the South-west Forest. J. Young, West Perth.  160 pp.  ISBN 0958577811.

Pocket-sized field guide. Easy descriptions and notes, with fair-quality line drawings and variable colour photos. Covers 60 species; no keys. Superseded by Young (2006).

 

Young J (2000) Hakeas of Western Australia – botanical districts of Roe & Eyre – the Mallee and the Esperance Plains. J. Young, West Perth.  164 pp.  ISBN 0958577811.

Pocket-sized field guide. Easy descriptions and notes, with fair quality line drawings and variable colour photos. Covers 64 species and subspecies; no keys. Superseded by Young (2006).

 

Young JA (2006) Hakeas of Western Australia: a field and identification guide. Self-publ. by author. 132 pp. ISBN 095857782X.

Covers 115 species occurring in WA, with simple descriptions, notes on distribution, habitat and cultivation, and variable quality colour photos and good line drawings.

 

 

 

RAINFOREST PLANTS

 

Australian Tropical Herbarium & CSIRO Plant Industry (2010) Australian tropical rain forest plants. Edition 6, version 6.1.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: ON-LINE, interactive: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/rfk/

This information system is an updated version of one developed by Hyland et al. (2003), but much expanded and on up-to-date software (Lucid 3.5 system and Matrix Java Applet – check site for system requirements). The key system is easy to use on-line after short familiarisation, even with limited plant material (many characters are available) and leads to very comprehensive species fact-sheets with descriptions and notes supported by good colour images of adult plants, colour scans of juveniles, and many leaf  x-ray images to show venation patterns. The system covers the seed-plants (trees, shrubs, vines, herbs, grasses, sedges, palms, pandans and epiphytes) of the rainforests of northern Australia – the area of coverage is north of a line from Broome to Townsville, but is also useful further south in Queensland (eventual extension to fully cover the area between Townsville and Rockhampton is anticipated; south from Rocky is covered by Harden et al. (2015).  RECOMMENDED

Earlier versions issued in various formats but now out of ‘print’ (e.g. 2 CD-ROMS + booklet from CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic ISBN-10: 9643068724; ISBN-13: 9780643068728) have significantly less coverage in area and growth forms, but may still be useful.

For the on-line interactive ‘Orchid module of the current product, see Jones et al. (2010) Australian tropical rainforest orchids, in Orchid section of this bibliography, or go direct to http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/orfk/index.html

 

Booth R, Harwood RK, & Mangion CP (eds) (2001) Field Key for the monsoon rainforest flora of the Darwin Region. Jointly published by Northern Territory University Press; Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory (NT Botanical Bulletin No 28); and Key Centre for Tropical Wildlife Management, Northern Territory University [now Charles Darwin University] (Occasional paper No 2). ISBN-10: 1876248769; ISBN-13: 9781876248765. 95 pp.

Covers about 360 species of vascular plants for the Darwin region, and is useful for this community elsewhere in the NT as well.  This is a key only (no separate species treatments). It uses an ‘artificial’ arrangement, based as much as possible on easy-to-interpret vegetative characters (habit, stems and leaves), with diagnostic line illustrations throughout.

 

Cameron D (2008) A field guide to rainforest identification in Victoria: differential species keys for the delineation of rainforest boundaries. Dept of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria; Melbourne. 140 pp. ISBN 9781742088990.

Intended as a guide to the identification of rainforest subtypes by the use of indicator species, but doubles as a useful guide to 107 of these. Detailed descriptions and excellent colour photos. Sturdy spiral-bound format.

 

Cooper W & Cooper WT (1994) Fruits of the rainforest: a guide to fruits in Australian tropical rainforest. Geo Productions, Chatswood, NSW.  327 pp.  ISBN 0646198033.

Excellent colour-painting illustrations of the fruits of over 600 species; leaf diagrams and very brief descriptive and distribution notes accompany. Superseded by Cooper & Cooper 2004, see next.

 

Cooper W & Cooper WT (2004) Fruits of the Australian tropical rainforest. Nokomis Editions (http://nokomis.com.au/). 632 pp. ISBN-10: 0958174210; ISBN-13:  9780958174213. 

Covers the fruiting plants of Queensland’s tropical rainforest from Rockhampton to the Torres Strait. 2,436 species are treated, of which 1,236 are illustrated by good colour paintings, plus line illustrations of leaves. Also includes keys to the families, genera and species.

 

Cooper W & Cooper W (2013) Australian rainforest fruits: a field guide. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic. 266 pp. ISBN 9780643107847 (pbk), 9780643107854 (epdf), 9780643107861 (epub).

A compact and abridged version of the 2004 work (see previous); a very useful guide to fruit identification for 504 of the most common species in Australia’s eastern rainforests. Pictorial based (excellent colour illustrations), with brief general descriptive notes.

 

Cronin L (2009) Cronin’s Key Guide: Australian rainforest plants. Jacana Books, Crows nest, NSW. 181 pp. ISBN 9781741751130.

Handy general-interest guide covering about 300 common species, with good plain-language descriptions and good colour illustrations. No keys.

 

Floyd AG (2008) Rainforest trees of mainland south-eastern Australia. Revised edition. Terania Rainforest Publishing, Lismore NSW. 443 pp. ISBN 9780958943673.

A guide to 402 rainforest tree species of Victoria and NSW, with some relevance for southern Queensland. Detailed descriptions and notes, including sample localities, good line drawings, and a good key. Both this and the original (1989) edition are now very dated.

 

Floyd AG (1990) Australian rainforests in New South Wales. Surrey Beatty & Sons in association with National Parks and Wildlife Service of New South Wales, Chipping Norton, NSW.  (2 vols, 136 & 180 pp.).  ISBNs 0949324310 (vol. 1), 0949324329 (vol. 2), 0949324302 (set).

Not an identification guide, but an overview of the rainforest communities with many useful references. Vol. 1 covers the physical structure of the forest, the classification of rainforest types, their distribution, conservation, and modes of natural and artificial regeneration. Vol. 2 looks in detail at the rainforest types, the vegetational alliances that occur in them, and gets down to specific discussion of sites of these around the state.

 

Francis WD (1981) Australian rain-forest trees. 4th edn.  Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 468 pp. ISBN 0642056439.

Once a standard but now very dated work on the subject. Some black and white photos.

 

Harden GJ & Williams JB (1979) Fruits – a guide to some common and unusual fruits found in rainforests. University of New England, Armidale, NSW.  12 pp.  ISBN 0858342812.

A field guide to identification of fruits of rainforest plants of NSW. A simple key leads to diagnostic line drawings with brief descriptions and notes. Not comprehensive and very dated, now fully superseded by the interactive system of Harden et al. (2014), see below.

 

Harden GJ, McDonald B, & Williams, J (2006)  Rainforest trees and shrubs – a field guide to their identification. Gwen Harden Publishing, PO Box 186 Nambucca Heads NSW 2448. 264 pp. ISBN 0977555305.

A fully revised and much expanded version of The Red Book’ (Williams, Harden & McDonald, 1984), this version covers 850 species in Victoria, New South Wales and subtropical Queensland. A very easy to use starter key, based on growth forms and leaf characteristics, leads to seventeen artificial groups; these in turn are subdivided by easy leaf characters to small groups of species, each of which is described and illustrated with small line drawings of diagnostic features, including flowers and fruit where useful. Now superseded by the interactive system of Harden et al. (2014), see below, but still useful for many situations in the absence of that new tool.

 

Harden GJ, McDonald B, & Williams J (2007)  Rainforest climbing plants – a field guide to their identification. Gwen Harden Publishing (PO Box 186, Nambucca Heads, NSW 2448). 192 pp. ISBN 9780977555314.

An update of the 1980 edition (‘The Green Book’), now covering the east Australian mainland south from Rockhampton.  Descriptions and 1,330 diagnostic line illustrations for 265 species are embedded in an easy-to-use key format. Now largely superseded by the interactive system of Harden et al (2014), see below, but still useful for most situations in the absence of that new tool.

 

Harden G, Nicholson H, McDonald B, Nicholson N, Tame T & Williams J (2014) Rainforest plants of Australia – Rockhampton to Victoria. Gwen Harden Publishing, P.O. Box 186, Nambucca Heads NSW 2448; http://rainforests.net.au/).

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE, INTERACTIVE – USB.

This comprehensive interactive key and information system runs on the user-friendly Lucid software, runnable on Windows or Mac. It covers 1139 species of trees, shrubs, mistletoes, and climbing plants, with over 11,000 excellent images. Each taxon has a fact sheet describing and illustrating (with enlargeable images) the general and diagnostic features of habit, bark, leaves, flowers and fruit, plus distribution data, habitat (including rainforest type), native/exotic status, and conservation listing status. This is now the tool of choice for rainforest species identification in mainland eastern Australia south of Rockhampton and inland to the dry vine thicket communities. RECOMMENDED

 

Hauser PJ (1992) Fragments of green : an identification field guide for rainforest plants of the greater Brisbane region. Rainforest Conservation Society Inc., Bardon, Qld..  381 pp.  ISBN 0958989117.

Native trees and shrubs of rainforest and former rainforest areas from Beaudesert north to Caboolture and west to Fassifern and Lake Wivenhoe. Simple keys to groups using leaf and growth form features, and species descriptions with good line drawings. Now superseded by more recent works.

 

Hyland BPM, Whiffin T, Christofel DC, Gray B, & Elick RW (2003) Australian tropical rain forest plants : trees, shrubs and vines. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic. (2 CD-ROMS + booklet). ISBN-10: 9643068724; ISBN-13: 9780643068728.

CD-ROM interactive identification and information system for 2154 species of trees, shrubs and vines of the rainforests of northern Australia (area of coverage is north of a line from Broome to Townsville, but is also useful further south in Queensland). The key system is easy to use, even with limited plant material (154 characters are available) and the descriptions and notes are supported by over 3400 colour images of adult plants, the same number of colour scans of juveniles, and nearly 2150 leaf  x-ray images to show venation patterns.

This work and its earlier versions were widely used but are now superseded by the on-line 6th edition (auth. Australian Tropical Herbarium & CSIRO Plant Industry, 2010, q.v.)

 

Jackes BR (1990) Plants of the tropical rainforest : Mt Spec area, North Queensland.  Botany Department, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld.  81 pp.  ISBN 086443359X.

Guide to ID of the trees, shrubs, vines, folliicolous lichens, bryophytes, and ferns of the Mt Spec / Paluma Range area. Few illustrations, but good exhaustive keys. Foolscap format.

 

Jackes BR (2007) Plants of the Tropics, rainforest to heath – an identification guide. 2nd edition. School of Tropical Biology, James Cook University,Townsville Qld. 241 pp.

The major part of this guide is authored by Betsy Jackes and is focussed on the vascular plants of two pairs of biomes: firstly the wet rainforest systems immediately west of Cairns and the drier heaths of the Herberton-Stannary Hills area, and secondly the corresponding wet rainforest around Paluma (north-west of Townsville) and the adjoining heathy area around Hidden Valley.  Most species occurring in the focus areas are included. The guide also has use throughout the ‘marginal’ area between these locales, but is less comprehensive there.  Separate ‘wet’ and ‘dry’ area keys are provided, and very extensive tables of diagnostic features for all species covered (including bark and blaze features for trees).

A separate section (pp. 189-225) by Andi Cairns, entitled ‘Introduction to tropical rainforest bryophytes: mosses, liverworts and hornworts’, includes full dichotomous keys to the species of these groups in the Mt Spec area, but has validity (at least to generic level if not always species) in other rainforest areas of north-east Queensland.

The first edition (2001, ISBN 0864436858) remains useful.

 

Jones DL (1986) Ornamental rainforest plants in Australia. Reed Books, Frenchs Forest, NSW.  364 pp.  ISBN 0730101134.

Essentially a horticultural book, not a systematic identification resource, but contains short descriptions with cultivation notes for many Australian species, some line drawings, and some colour photos; deals with a surprising number of species which are seldom written up elsewhere.

 

Liddle DT, Russell-Smith J, Brock J, Leach GJ & Connors GT (1994) Atlas of the vascular rainforest plants of the Northern Territory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. (Flora of Australia supplementary series no. 3)  164 pp.  ISBN 0642220905.

Not an identification book as such, but a distribution census with a considerable amount of tightly coded information about each species; distribution is shown on a map, with source of record, nominated voucher specimens, literature reference, endemism and conservation status, and life-form.

 

Nicholson N & Nicholson H (1985-2000) Australian rainforest plants, in the forest & in the garden. Terania Rainforest Publishing, 391 The Channon Rd, The Channon via Lismore  NSW 2480; web http://www.rainforestpublishing.com.au; email terania@rainforestpublishing.com.au.

  • 1 (6th edn 2007), ISBN-10 0958943605, ISBN-13 97809589436 80;
  • 2 (4th edn 2007), ISBN-10 0958943613, ISBN-13 9780958943611;
  • 3 (3rd edn 2006), ISBN-10 095894363X, ISBN-13 978095894363X;
  • 4 (2nd edn 2003), ISBN-10 0958943648, ISBN-13 9780958943648;
  • 5 (2nd edn 2008), ISBN-10 0958943656, ISBN-13 9780958943659;
  • 6 (2004), ISBN-10 0958943664, ISBN-13 9780958943664.

Each volume (all of 72 pp.) has species arranged alphabetically; there is no overall taxonomic scheme. Scope is Tasmania to Kimberley. Very general descriptions, no maps or keys, good quality colour photographs.  Superseded by more recent works, especially the interactives.

 

Pearson S & Pearson A (1992) Rainforest plants of eastern Australia. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW.  224 pp.  ISBN 0864174748.

A slightly misleading title – the book is strongly biased in species coverage to Queensland and northern NSW. Nevertheless a very useful book for those areas, with an innovative tabular key (with flower colour-coding) and high-quality colour photos. Notes on species are lamentably brief.

 

Podberscek M (1993) Field guide to rainforest trees, shrubs, and climbers of Fraser Island, using vegetative characters. Department of Primary Industry, Brisbane.  136 pp.  ISBN 0724253688.

Provides easy keys, with glossaries, using mainly leaf characters; these are followed by descriptions and black & white illustrations of leaves for each species.

 

Poropat P (2009) Barks and trunks: rainforest trees of south-eastern Australia. [Self-published by the author, Goonellabah NSW: purchasing details at http://barksandtrunks.com/books). 98 pp. ISBN 9780980628265.

A very useful compendium of images and descriptions of 93 tree species, from Victoria to the Brisbane region, with excellent colour photos of trunk features, supplementary photos of other parts of the plant, simple descriptions, and comments on the timber colour and properties. Also a useful tabulation of ‘bingo!’ identification characters. See also next two entries.

 

Poropat P (2013) Barks and trunks: rainforest trees of eastern Australia. Volume 2. [Self-published by the author, Goonellabah NSW: purchasing details at  http://barksandtrunks.com/books/). 150 pp. ISBN 9780987351524

Companion volume to Poropat (2009), but note the slightly different title. A similar compendium of images and descriptions, with excellent colour photos of trunk features, supplementary photos of other parts of the plant, simple descriptions, and comments on the timber colour and properties. This volume presents a further 150 species (from the Illawarra of NSW to the Bunya Mountains and Kilkivan in SEQ, and including a selection of species from the drier rainforest scrubs), bringing the total to 243. A third volume is in preparation.

 

Poropat P [undated] Eastern Australian rainforest trees poster [Bark and trunk images]. [Self-published by author: purchasing details at http://barksandtrunks.com/books/).  Poster. ISBN lacking.

97 good quality photos of bark and trunks, covering the 93 species of Poropat (2009).

 

Radke P, Radke A, Sankowsky G, & Sankowsky N (1993) Growing Australian tropical plants. Frith & Frith Books, Malanda, Qld.  70 pp.  ISBN 0958994293.

Not an identification guide but included here because of the excellent colour photos, including  many species rarely illustrated elsewhere. Includes brief descriptive and horticultural notes.

 

Ramsey D (2008) Rainforest of tropical Australia. Second edition. Ecosystem Guides, Cairns, Qld (www.ecosystem-guides.com.au). 470 pp. ISBN 9780975747049.

A general-interest guide to flora and fauna and their habitats. Covers a fair selection of the fungi, lichens, ferns and allies, conifers and flowering plants, with very brief descriptive notes and good colour photos.

 

Robertson Environment Protection Society (1993) A guide to the Yarrawa Brush – trees, shrubs and vines of the rainforest remnants. Robertson Environment Protection Society, Robertson, NSW.  77 pp.  ISBN 0646125354.

Covers an area of tableland and escarpment to the south-west of the Illawarra region of NSW. Brief notes on the area, plain-language descriptions of 41 species, with propagation notes and variable-quality black and white photographs, plus bibliography and a map of the rainforest remnants.

 

Sankowsky G (2003-ongoing) Australian tropical plants. Version 4.1 Zodiac Publications, P.O. Box 210, Tolga Qld 4882; http://www.rainforestmagic.com.au/atp.html. No ISBN.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCE: LIMITED INTERACTIVITY (simple and complex SQL searches); on DVD – suitable only for Windows systems on stand-alone PCs.

A work in progress, this information system currently (Aug. 2015) covers 2050 species of Australian native tropical plants (including trees, shrubs, vines, ferns and orchids), with a strong Queensland bias. Over 1200 colour photo images and information on 524 Australia tropical species, most or all of Queensland rainforests. The system is image-based (over 12,000 good colour photos) with a large set of search criteria to narrow identification possibilities, and a capacity to generate data-sheets (including images) for each species.  An update facility is available as the system develops.

 

Wightman G & Andrews M (1989) Plants of Northern Territory monsoon vine forests. Volume 1. Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin.  163 pp.  ISBN 072450687X.

Contains a brief introduction to the floristics, structure and ecology of these communities, ad one-page species treatments arranged by growth form (trees, shrubs, climbers, etc.). No keys, and not comprehensive, but a good selection of the plants likely to be encountered. A brief description of each, with habitat and distribution statements, local occurrences, and notes on uses and ecology, all accompanied by fair-quality line drawings.

 

Williams JB & Harden GJ (1984) Rainforest climbing plants : a field guide to the rainforest climbing plants of New South Wales using vegetative characters. Revised edn.  University of New England, Armidale, NSW.  47 pp.  ISBN 0858342936.

An easy illustrated  key, with line drawings of each species. Superseded.

 

Williams JB (1986) Checklist of the rainforest flora of New South Wales. 4th edn. University of New England, Armidale, NSW.  40 pp.  ISBN 0858344327.

Recognized names, authors, common names, community type, southern limits. No descriptions, keys or illustrations, and now very dated.

 

Williams JB, Harden GW, & McDonald, WJF (1984) Trees and shrubs in rainforests of New South Wales and southern Queensland. University of New England, Armidale, NSW.  142 pp.  ISBN 0858345552.

This was ‘The Red Book’, much loved as a field guide by a generation of  rainforest enthusiasts, but superseded first by Harden et al (2006) and now by the interactive Harden et al (2014) – see above. The simple keys are based largely on vegetative characters. 541 species are covered with short descriptions and line drawings of leaves and fruits.

 

Williams JB & Harden GJ  (1979)  Rainforest trees and shrubs – a field guide to trees and shrubs of rainforests in New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland using leaf features. Dept of Botany, University of New England, Armidale NSW. 63 pp. ISBN 0858342448.

Essentially an earlier, leaves-only version of Williams & Harden (1984), q.v., and similarly superseded by later works – now of historical interest only.  Key illustrated with clear line drawings, and brief descriptions and notes on species. Post-1981 printings carry a 5-page supplement correcting some earlier errors.

 

 

 

RUTACEAE

 

Wilson A (ed.) (2013) Flora of Australia Volume 26: Meliaceae, Rutaceae and Zygophyllaceae. Flora of Australia Series, Australian Biological Resources Study . CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). 640 pp. ISBN: 9780643109551 hbk ; 9780643109568 pbk. 

This volume of the series covers the families Meliaceae, Rutaceae and Zygophyllaceae. It is the only comprehensive treatment of the Rutaceae across the whole of Australia in more than a century. 43 genera and 486 species, with full keys, descriptions, and other information.

 

 

 

SEASHORE PLANTS

See also AQUATIC (NON-MARINE) AND WETLAND PLANTS AND ALGAE section.

 

Cribb AB & Cribb JW (1985) Plant life of the Great Barrier Reef and adjacent shores.  University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Qld.  294 pp.  ISBN 0702219843.

Plain language species profiles, with good colour photos. Covers strand and dune plants, mangroves, some marine algae, and sea grasses. Includes native and introduced species – the distinction is not always made.

 

Carolin R & Clarke P (1991) Beach plants of south eastern Australia. Sainty & Associates, Potts Point, NSW.  119 pp.  ISBN 0646051474.

Common littoral plants from Wilsons Promontory (Vic.) to Fraser Is. (Qld). Introductory sections on the dune environment, plant communities, management issues, and then descriptions of most common species, coupled with high-quality colour photos.

 

Davie P et al. (2011) Wild Guide to Moreton Bay and Adjacent Coasts. Second Edition. Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 443 pp. ISBN 9780980753387.

An excellent guide to the animal life of the bay area, with a couple of dozen entries (brief descriptions, notes, and fair-only colour photos) for a selection of marine algae and dune, saltmarsh and mangrove plants.

 

Edgar GJ  (2012)  Australian marine life. Second edn.  Reed New Holland, Chatswood, NSW.  624 pp.  ISBN 9781921517174.

Covers both plants and animals, but with many common species of cyanobacteria and the algal groups, with brief sections on marine fungi, seashore lichens, the seagrasses, and seashore (mangrove and saltmarsh) land plants.  Excellent colour photos, with brief notes.

 

Hamilton MA, Winkler MA & Downey PO (2008) Native plant species at risk from Bitou Bush invasion: a field guide for New South Wales. Dept of Environment & Climate Change (NSW), Hurstville. 196 pp. ISBN 9781741224467.

A good compact guide to nearly 160 species (and 24 ecological communities) of the near-coastal area of NSW; plain-language descriptions and fair- to good quality colour photos.

 

Johns L (2014) Field guide to common saltmarsh plants of Queensland. 3rd ed. Queensland Dept of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Brisbane. 76 pp. [ISBN lacking].

[Free hardcopies on request: call 13 25 23, or see http://www.angfaqld.org.au/aqp/blog/2014/05/22/new-and-impro