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Healthy Seeds

‘Healthy Seeds for Resilient Restoration – A reliable, genetically appropriate supply of native seed for resilient ecological restoration in NSW’

In 2021 the ANPC completed the 2 year Healthy Seeds Project funded by the NSW Government through its Environmental Trust. This project delivered an evidence-based Healthy Seeds Roadmap that details how to secure a reliable, genetically-appropriate, native seed supply in NSW for restoration, a 4 page Roadmap Summary and updated the Florabank Guidelines for best practice native seed collection and use – all available below.



High quality seed from a range of native species is the foundation for restoring healthy and resilient ecosystems. However, there is evidence that much of the seed being used for restoration in NSW is not necessarily fit-for-purpose. Between October 2016 and April 2017 the ANPC undertook a survey of the Australian native seed sector, which reported dwindling seed supplies and a decline in expertise and training. Initial survey results were disseminated at the Australian Native Seed Industry Review Workshop held at the ANPC’s 11th Australasian Plant Conservation Conference (APCC11) in Melbourne on 18 November 2016. The Australian Native Seed Survey Report details the results and fed into the planning of the Healthy Seeds project.

Current and future restoration projects are at risk due to a range of complex and interrelated factors, including:

  • Seed used in restoration projects can have genetic problems.
  • Insufficient seed from the range and diversity of species and functional groups needed to restore ecosystems.
  • Volume of seed produced by wild populations is declining.
  • Pressure from seed collectors impacting on wild populations.
  • Natural plant populations have variable seed production and seed is often not available in the timeframes required.
  • Demand for genetically-appropriate native seed has been increasing while supply from wild populations is falling leading to seed shortages, particularly west of the divide.
  • Lack of infrastructure available to grow and store native seed at the scale needed.
  • Markets appear unwilling or unable to establish seed production infrastructure spontaneously, without support.
  • The seed supply chain is labour and capital-intensive and high risk.
  • The ‘market’ is driven by federal state and local government investments which are unstable and variable across time and location.
  • No industry body or established standards for native seed.
  • Information for practitioners is inaccessible and out-of-date.
  • The provenance of much of the seed used is unknown, and there is anecdotal evidence of falsification in some cases.

Collecting seed from Narrow-Leaf Hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa subsp angustissima) using a seed vacuum. (Photo: Martin Driver)

Project Objectives
  • To identify the most effective and efficient interventions for improving the genetic health and reliability of the native seed supply for better resilience of ecological restoration in NSW. These interventions will be identified in a Roadmap that will be publicly available and can be used by both public and private partners to drive solutions.
  • To gain agreement and co-ordination between government, community and industry sectors on the way forward for improving the genetic health and reliable supply of native seed for more resilient ecological restoration in NSW.
  • To ensure practitioners are aware of, have access to, and are using up-to-date science and guidance materials for best-practice native seed management in ecological restoration.
Project Description

This project aimed to deliver a robust, evidence-based Roadmap to secure a reliable, genetically-appropriate native seed supply in NSW that is needed to ensure the long-term health and resilience of restored ecosystems. The development of a framework and infrastructure for seed production was identified as the main solution for the issues discussed above. Seed Production Areas (SPAs) are seen as central to overcoming shortfalls in high quality native seed for ecological restoration, and for improving seed supply reliability, reducing pressure on wild populations, and for improving genetic provenance and diversity. However, questions remained about whether, and under what circumstances, SPAs can produce genetically appropriate seed, and for what cost. And whether there is sufficient evidence to support investment in SPAs over the long term, given a changing climate. This project assessed the need for SPAs, against other solutions, and produced a publicly-available Roadmap for future action.

Collecting Nitre Goosefoot (Chenopodium nitrariaceum) seed. (Photo: Sue Logie)

Related media articles:

Seed collecting at a minesite for broadscale rehabilitation. (Photo: Lucy Commander)

Australia lacks the seed supplies, knowledge for nature repair market, experts say – Carbon Pulse, 26 July 2023

Australia’s seed industry underfunded, understaffed, and unprepared for surging carbon, biodiversity market demand – Carbon Pulse, 10 August 2023

Eurora seed bank warns shortage of supply won’t be able to keep up with growing demands for native seed – ABC Rural, 16 September 2023

Key Staff

The key staff on this project were:

Healthy Seeds Project Manager – Martin Driver


Florabank Guidelines Project Manager – Dr Lucy Commander


This project was assisted by the New South Wales Government through its Environmental Trust.