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Australasian Plant Conservation

Australasian Plant Conservation (APC) the quarterly bulletin of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation (ANPC) – is a forum for information exchange for all those involved in plant conservation,  whether in research, management, or on-ground practice, and where they can share their work with others. Each issue contains a range of articles on plant conservation issues, usually on a particular theme, which reflect the interests of the range of ANPC’s membership. However, off-theme articles are welcome at any time. Regular features include lists of the latest relevant publications, membership profiles, Australian Seed Bank Partnership news, and conference and workshop reports.

An index of past issues of APC can be found here.

APC publishes articles from the breath of fields that inform plant conservation in Australalasia, including, but not limited to, ecology, botany, conservation biology, aquatic botany, bryology,  mycology, restoration, horticulture, social science (e.g.,community environmental management), natural resource management and environmental policy.

The role of APC is to provide a common forum accessible to scientific researchers, land and natural resource managers and ecological consultants, and community practitioners. APC is a great way for scientists to communicate their findings to practitioners, and conversely for practitioners to report their work and practical issues in a scientific forum; an important part of APC’s role is to provide an avenue for practitioners with limited or no scope for publication in their field. Student and trainee papers are encouraged, as are papers from our Australasian neighbours (e.g., New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia). To the extent possible, and with the exception of policy articles, we prefer material which includes at least indicative results and some attempt to identify generalisable results (not simply ‘we did this’, but ‘here’s what it means in our situation’).

APC is not a ‘peer-reviewed’ journal, but it is edited to a high scientific and technical standard, in liaison with authors as necessary. We seek to operate at the interface of the science and management of plant conservation, publishing information which can be applied to improve plant conservation.

We ask authors to keep our broad readership in mind – we seek articles that are as far as possible ‘plain-English’, without being dumbed down.  Please take space in your draft to briefly explain (rather than assume) technical terms or concepts, or local situations, that may be unfamiliar to other sections of the readership. Please discuss with the editor if in doubt.

APC is published quarterly, and is provided free to ANPC members within Australia and worldwide as part of their subscription.


Share your plant conservation work with others!


Announcement: General call for articles on plants and fire

Following the bushfires affecting large parts of Australia in 2019 and 2020, APC is seeking articles describing plant and ecological communities responses to fire (e.g., fire-triggered seed germination, re-sprouting, structural and floristic community changes) and, where applicable, the impact of multiple fires and differing fire intensities, frequencies or seasons on plants and ecological communities. This call for fire-related articles is open for all four APC issues in 2020. Due dates for individual issues are detailed in the table below.

IssueDateThemeCall for papersDeadline for articles
28(3)December 2019-February 2020Students working in plant conservation aka ‘The student issue’September 2019Closed
28(4)March – May 2020GeneralDecember 2019Closed
29(1)June – August 2020GeneralMarch 2020Closed
29(2)September – November 2020General*June 20201 August 2020
29(3)December 2020- February 2021General*September 20201 November 2020
29(4)March – May 2021GeneralDecember 20201 February 2021

In 2020, APC is inviting articles on any and all aspects of plant conservation be submitted to any issue. Hence, the theme for issues in 2020 is ‘General’. *For APC issues 29(2) and 29(3) were are also inviting contributions on ex situ conservation projects, in partnership with the review of the Germplasm Guidelines.


APC Instructions for authors

If you are intending to submit an article or wish to discuss the possibilities, please email the Editor Heidi Zimmer.

Please download the APC instructions for authors document which provides guidelines on the APC style and scope, including how to quote references.

You also need to submit an APC article submission form. (Word version available here.)

Email your article to the Editor here.

We also welcome:

  • correspondence,
  • reviews of books.
  • titles of interesting recent publications or resources, and where they can be found.
  • conference, workshop, course and fieldwork announcements.
  • details of relevant publications, information resources and websites.

Regular articles 

Please download and apply your text to the regular article template provided.

Regular articles generally should not exceed 1200 words (500 words for reviews and short communications) and authors are encouraged to submit two or three images to illustrate their article, at as high a resolution as possible (but at least 300 dpi), and as separate jpeg, tif or gif files – not embedded in the text.

For translocation-themed issues of APC, we also provide a translocation case study template.

Correspondence (new to APC in 2020)

  • Purpose: for readers to submit short comments on topical issues, anecdotal material and reactions to material published in APC.
  • Author guidelines: correspondence should be no longer than 400 words (and ideally should aim for 300 words), and include no more than three references. We suggest that authors try to make one or two clear points, and include relevant context to ensure their correspondence is ‘durable’ (time to publication may be up to 3 months). Tables and figures are not usually included in correspondence. Please include authors names, addresses, email addresses and phone numbers. We will not accept any material which is plagiarised, endorses commercial products, obtained without the correct permits, or which could be considered libellous.
  • Guidelines for the Editor: Selection of correspondence for publication in APC will be based first on relevance and interest to the readership of APC, and according to the principles of balance and fairness where necessary (e.g. right of reply). While authors are encouraged to express their opinion, the Editor will be on the look out for factual errors
  • Publication of correspondence will be at the discretion of the Editor, in consultation with the President of ANPC (where necessary), and will be reviewed by members of the ANPC committee. Correspondence may be edited for publication (the author will be advised).

Images and attachments

All images, graphs, charts and/or illustrations must be provided separately;
Please do not embed your images within your article, these must be provided as a separate file;
Please ensure your article contains the reference details (text only) to the image file name i.e. .

Advertise in APC

Promote your organisation or business to ANPC members. Full colour advertising is available throughout APC! Please see our advertising rates for 2020. All fees received help contribute towards the costs of printing and distributing APC.

Subscribe to APC

Australasian Plant Conservation is sent to ANPC members four times a year. When you have become a member, you will receive the previous two issues of APC for the calendar year you join.

APC Index

See the list of APC bulletins here from the present back to 1995, with a limited number of articles available to display. You can download a copy of all articles from APC Volume 13 Issue 1 to the present from Informit at a cost of $4.00 per article.



APC Editor – Dr Heidi Zimmer

Heidi Zimmer is a Senior Scientist at the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage. She has worked with universities and government, at the interface of science and management of ecosystems including grasslands, woodlands and rainforests. She has conducted research into ecology of native gymnosperms (particularly Callitris spp. and the Wollemi pine), vegetation recovery after the Black Saturday Bushfire and dendrochronological studies of forests in Papua New Guinea and Thailand. She is currently working on IUCN extinction risk assessments for NSW plant species, threatened plant species translocation, and improving flora monitoring methods.





APC Associate Editor – Dr Nathan Emery

Nathan Emery is a Restoration Biology Officer at the Australian Botanic Garden Mount Annan. Nathan’s experiences are a combination of plant ecology, seed biology and restoration. He has worked with difficult to propagate species, such as Actinotus and threatened Persoonia species, and has helped manage several threatened plant translocation projects. Nathan is also working in threatened ecological communities in the NSW North West Slopes region.


Featured articles


Germination of the rarely seen Pink Flannel Flower (Actinotus forsythii; Apiaceae). By Ruby Paroissien et al. (Australasian Plant Conservation 28(3): 3-5.

Fire is an important driver shaping the composition of plant communities in Australia. Fire ephemerals are a unique element of the fire-vegetation relationship, emerging in the first few months after fire and persisting only for one to several years. These species have a strong dependence on fire to germinate and, as ephemerals only live a short time in their plant phase, spend the majority of their life cycle as seeds in the soil. Consequently, it is likely that they have developed relatively complex and specific requirements to overcome dormancy and promote germination … [Full-text PDF]

New discoveries for the endangered Illawarra Socketwood (Daphnandra johnsonii, Atherospermataceae). By Jedda Lemmon (Australasian Plant Conservation 28(2):13-15).

The New South Wales Government’s Saving our Species program (SoS) aims to secure threatened flora in the wild through targeted conservation projects. Monitoring and conservation efforts for the Illawarra Socketwood (Daphnandra johnsonii), listed as Endangered on boththe NSW Biodiversity Conservation Act 2016 and the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, has resulted in multiple gains in our knowledge of this species. The Illawarra Socketwood Recovery Plan (DEC 2005) highlighted that limited seed development and factors responsible for the production of ‘pseudo fruit’ are essential aspects of the species’ biology requiring investigation. We are pleased to report that we are now able to explain the cause of deformed fruit in this species. Increased field survey and monitoring has also led to the discovery of many new populations, and we have commenced genetic work to better understand the extent of clonality in this species…. [Full-text PDF]


Threatened plant translocation study: Posidonia australis (Strapweed), Posidoniaceae. By Guilia Ferretto et al. (Australasian Plant Conservation 28(1): 24-26).

Posidonia australis meadows occur in six NSW estuaries (Port Hacking, Botany Bay, Sydney Harbour, Pittwater, Brisbane Waters and Lake Macquarie) have experienced large reductions in distribution since the mid-1900s. It is at risk of becoming locally extinct in some estuaries due to ongoing impacts. One of the ongoing impacts for loss of P. australis in NSW estuaries is traditional swing moorings (Glasby and West 2018). These moorings are composed of a large concrete block connected to a heavy chain that drags along the seafloor as the boat swings on its axis due to shifting wind and tides, directly removing seagrass shoots (Demers et al. 2013). Swing moorings create bare patches or scars that destabilise the sediment and change hydrodynamic conditions, resulting in fragmented meadows (Figure 1) … [Full text PDF]

Fire is the key to survival of Avenue Cassinia. By Bryan Haywood (Australasian Plant Conservation 27(4): 21-23).

Avenue Cassinia (Cassinia tegulata) is a nationally threatened species occurring in south-eastern Australia. The species has a limited range, in the South East region of South Australia to western Victoria. With a preference for interdunal wetland habitats, Avenue Cassinia has undergone significant reductions in both area of occupancy and population size as a direct result of extensive drainage and land clearance (Thompson and Haywood 2017). Other major threats to the species’ long-term survival include climate change, population isolation (limiting recruitment and decreasing genetic diversity), herbivore pressure, environmental weeds, loss of Indigenous use of fire as a land management tool and overall lack of species knowledge…. [Full text PDF]

Threatened plant translocation case study: Grevillea scapigera (Corrigin Grevillea), Proteaceae. By Bob Dixon and Siegy Krauss (Australasian Plant Conservation 27(3): 22-25).

The Corrigin Grevillea was first collected in 1954, and has been known from only 13 small, mainly degraded roadside populations restricted to a 50 km radius area around the Wheatbelt town of Corrigin in Western Australia. The Wheatbelt region has been extensively used for agricultural purposes and over 94% of its 14 million hectares has been cleared. In 1986 the Corrigin Grevillea was presumed extinct. In 1989 a single grafted plant was identified in Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney and was brought to Kings Park in Perth where it was initiated successfully into in vitro culture. The following year, naturally occurring plants were discovered near Corrigin, and at the time, up to 35 living specimens were known in the wild. Due to its rarity, the destruction of its habitat, the extreme vulnerability of degraded and isolated roadside remnant populations and the low ability of the species to regenerate on its own, translocation was determined to be critical for the survival of the species in situ…. [Full text PDF].

The responsibilities of ecological consultants in disseminating outcomes from threatened species surveys: a call to arms. By Stephen Bell (Australasian Plant Conservation 27(2): 3-6).

Ecological consultants are often in the enviable position of being paid to botanically explore and seek out threatened plants. Yes, there are attractive jobs in remote or pristine locations where few botanists have trod before, but there are also less desirable projects in weed-infested remnants across highly fragmented landscapes or in heavily urbanised environments. Both offer the potential to uncover important information on threatened plants. But are we, as consultants, fulfilling our responsibilities for the cause of conservation by disseminating the outcomes of threatened species surveys and monitoring? …. [Full text PDF]

Threatened plant translocation case study: Involvement in the Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria’s Orchid Conservation Program by volunteers from the Australasian Native Orchid Society Victoria Group. By Noushka Reiter and Richard Thomson (Australasian Plant Conservation 27(1): 19-22).

Orchids are one of the most charismatic and diverse plant families with over 26,000 species worldwide (WSPF 2018). Australia is home to more than 1800 (Backhouseet al., 2016) species and subspecies of orchid, with the majority being terrestrial species found predominately in the temperate south. Victoria has in excess of 400 species of native orchids with many occurring nowhere else on Earth. Orchid habitat in Victoria varies from alpine peaks to semi-arid mallee, swamps, native grasslands, heath lands, and eucalypt forests of all types. The majority of our native orchids emerge from an underground tuber in autumn, flower in late winter-spring and set seed before the summer, when they retreat back to their underground tuber. All orchids are reliant on one or more species of mycorrhizal partner (Rasmussen 1995) to germinate in the wild, and are often pollinated by only one or a few species of insect (Tremblay et al. 2005). Successful conservation translocations (supplementations, reintroductions and introductions) of these plants typically require a thorough understanding of their ecology including pollinators and mycorrhizal fungi (Reiter et al. 2016). …[Full text PDF]


Threatened plant translocation case study: Ricinocarpos brevis, Euphorbiaceae. By Carole Elliott, Kylie Wilkonson and Shane Turner (Australasian Plant Conservation 26(4): 12-15).

Approximately 1200 wild plants were estimated to occur in the Monarto and Mount Monster populations in 2010 (Pound et al. 2010). The species is listed as Endangered under the Australian Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act), and Critically Endangered under IUCN criteria. Translocation trials were conducted at both population centers with the aim of enhancing natural populations while at the same time testing various techniques and management options (Jusaitis 2010). This case study focusses on a trial originally designed to examine the influence of herbivory on translocant establishment, but long-term monitoring additionally revealed an intriguing interaction of climate with herbivory (Jusaitis 2012). ….[Full text PDF]

Recent book reviews

Allure of Fungi by Alison Pouliot. Review by Michele Kohout. [PDF]

Australian Forest Woods by Morris Lake. Review by Jugo Ilic. [PDF]

A Guide to Native Bees of Australia by Terry Houston. Review by Paul Kucera. [PDF]

Restoring Farm Woodlands for Wildlife by David Lindemayer et al. Review by David Cheal. [PDF]